In general, people around the world are eating better and living longer, but they are also moving less. This is contributing to the rise of diabetes, a condition that affects 422 million people and is fast becoming a major problem, especially in poor countries. 总的来说,全世界的人们饮食更好了,寿命也更长了,运动却变少了。吃得好动得少导致另一种全球灾难增加,那就是糖尿病。这个病情正影响着4.22亿人口,并迅速成为主要问题,特别是在贫穷的国家。未来有一天,纳米技术可能会使监测血糖水平和开药比现在容易得多。 Two factors are critical for the successful treatment of diabetes patients. First is a correct diagnosis of the type of the disease, and second is the administration of the appropriate drugs. 对于糖尿病患者来说,治疗成功有两个关键因素。首先,要正确诊断病症的类型,其次开一剂对症的药物。 A misdiagnosis and, consequently, the wrong treatment can cause many problems. 错误诊断和随之而来的错误治疗会引起很多问题。 “If you label someone who actually has type 2 diabetes as type 1, they'll be left on insulin for the rest of their life when they don't need it," said Dr. Richard Oram of the U.K. National Institute for Health Research. "Even worse, if someone with type 1 diabetes is mislabeled as having type 2 diabetes, then they may not be treated with the insulin they need, and they may suffer life-threatening complications.” 英国健康研究所的理查德·奥拉姆说:“如果你将实际上患有二型糖尿病的人标记为一型,他们的余生都将留给胰岛素,而实际上他们并不需要。更糟糕的是,如果一型糖尿病人被误判为二型,那么他们可能不会得到所需的胰岛素治疗,可能会遭受危及生命的并发症。” A new, less expensive test, developed at the University of Exeter Medical School, measures 30 genetic variants in the patient’s DNA and calculates the risk for type 1 or type 2. Individual diagnoses can be completed with a commonly used test for antibodies. 由埃克塞特大学医学院(University of Exeter Medical School)研制的一项新的、更便宜的测试测量病人DNA中30种基因变体,计算一型或二型糖尿病的风险。个体诊断可以用一种常用的抗体测试完成。 Scientists are now trying to develop an even simpler DNA-based test that could be done with a smartphone app. 科学家们现在正在尝试研发一种更简单的、基于DNA的测试,可以用智能手机应用程序来完成。 No more injections? In the meantime, researchers in South Korea are developing a nanotechnology-based adhesive strip that takes away pain and stress of daily injections for diabetes patients. 与此同时,韩国的研究人员正开发一种纳米技术为基础的粘条,可以解除糖尿病患者每天注射的疼痛和压力。 “The device is a patch type that enables [diabetics] to monitor blood sugar levels via sweat without taking blood samples and injections, as well as to control glucose levels by injecting medication,” said Kim Dae-hyeong, a professor in the School of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Seoul National University. 首尔大学的金岱勋说:“这个装置像一块补丁,让糖尿病患者可以通过流汗来监测血糖水平,而不用取血样和注射,还可以注射药物来控制血糖。” The patch is studded with microneedles that painlessly enter subcutaneous tissue. When the connected chip senses that the level of glucose has risen above normal, a small heating element dissolves medication and releases it into the bloodstream. 这块补丁装置装有显微针,无痛进入皮下组织。当连接的芯片感应到血糖水平比平常高,一个小的加热材料将药物溶解并将其释放到血液中。 Tests done on lab mice were promising, so scientists hope they will soon start testing the patch on humans. In this phase, experiments are still expensive, but scientists say the price will drop once it the patch is ready for mass production. 在实验鼠身上做的测验很有希望,所以科学家们希望他们将很快开始在人类身上测试这个补丁装置。现阶段,试验依然昂贵,但是科学家们说一旦补丁装置可以大规模生产,价格就会下降。