综合写作 (中文版) 美国的ANDE wall是不是一种防御机制。 Reading: 不是 1.wall不是连续的,有gaps,不能达到防御的目的 2.wall 由multiple entranceways构成,而一般的防御建筑只有一个出口和入口 3.没有walls和储水的地方,无法供给城内抵御外敌 Listening: 赞成 1.这些gaps都是悬崖之类,通常是容易受攻击的地方 2.这些ways是用来contact,因为site在large area,而且这些通道很窄 3.敌人也要面临食物和水短缺的问题,因为这里气候干燥 (英文版) Reading: prehistoric defensive constructions (forts) in Andes are unusual in some places, walls are absent, making them vulnerable to attack; they have multiple entranceways, while normally other forts have 1 or 2 gates only; lack of space to store enough water Lecture: The places that don’t have walls because they are naturally defended by cliffs or steep mountains; Entranceways all face clear open space with great visibility, people in the forts could easily spot potential attackers, to block the gate and get prepared; Andes region is dry, without enough food and water for the army, they wouldn’t choose to surround the forts and wait till they surrender. If the fort could withstand the initial attack, it could survive. 独立写作 Should governments spend money on scientific research even if it has no practical value?