Conversation 1
一个女生来找教授说她在杂志上看到的一个造型奇特的建筑,希望把这个写进自己的论文里面。教授同意,然后两个人开始讨论为什么这个建筑是这个造型,跟environmentally friendly有关。
-TPO部分对应参考 (论文科研 TPO17-C1/TPO22-C2)
-TPO对应词汇
 
科研过程
Hypothesis
Alternative hypothesis择一假说
Null hypothesis无效假说, 零假说
Collect data
Survey, questionnaire
Experiment
Interfere, influence
Observation
Analyze data
Interpret data
Analysis
Analytical
Subject
Sample
Treatment group
Non-treatment
Control group
Lecture 1
艺术类。讲意大利文艺复兴时期的fresco。首先它很大,在教堂穹顶画画,要在24小时之内完成。因为画得太久,表面就干了,不能与顶融为一体,不好修改。而且画作很高(重听题),本来人们用梯子就好了。某个画家自己设计了一个梯子(目的题),教授总结这种画在文艺复兴时期很厉害。讲米开朗基罗在chapel的ceiling上画画,用fresco(湿壁壁画绘画技法),讲的是西斯廷教堂。Fresco的优点是画了之后比较持久,不褪色。但缺点是画了之后就不能更改。因为先涂一层pastel,然后这层sink color的能力特别好,会迅速吸收,就改不了了。另外,必须在这一层是湿的时候才可以画。所以一定要赶时间,在24小时之内画完。比如有个画家就可以两只手同时画(细节题),然后说因为是在天花板上画,而且在画的时候可能还会有人在举行仪式,所以有恐高症的人画不成(原因细节题)。最后说米开朗基罗发明了一种工具帮助他画。
 
-TPO部分对应参考 (艺术史TPO15-L3/TPO18-L2)
-参考背景
 
Fresco is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid or wet lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall. The word fresco is derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh", and may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco. The fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is closely associated with Italian Renaissance painting.
Lecture 2
生命科学。实际上动物界里可以变色的比人们认为得要少。人们被眼睛骗了。适应环境变化身体的三种途径。
-TPO部分对应参考 (动物学TPO21-L3/TPO24-L1)
-参考背景
 
Some chameleon species are able to change their skin coloration.
Different chameleon species are able to vary their coloration and pattern through combinations of pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown, light blue, yellow, turquoise, and purple.
Color change in chameleons has functions in social signaling and in reactions to temperature and other conditions, as well as in camouflage. The relative importance of these functions varies with the circumstances, as well as the species. Color change signals a chameleon's physiological condition and intentions to other chameleons. Chameleons tend to show darker colors when angered, or attempting to scare or intimidate others, while males show lighter, multicolored patterns when courting females.
Some species, such as Smith's dwarf chameleon, adjust their colors for camouflage in accordance with the vision of the specific predator species (bird or snake) by which they are being threatened.
The desert-dwelling Namaqua chameleon also uses color change as an aid to thermoregulation, becoming black in the cooler morning to absorb heat more efficiently, then a lighter grey color to reflect light during the heat of the day. It may show both colors at the same time, neatly separated left from right by the spine.
 
Conversation 2
女生原来住在ecohouse,现在想换到Maryhouse,因为觉得那边可以认识更多的人开阔视野。老师说现在所有申请都可以在网上完成,直接网上申请就可以。然后问女生能不能帮他做个review问卷。
-TPO部分对应参考 (其他话题 TPO3-C1/TPO21-C1)
-TPO对应词汇
租房:
租房
lease n.租借, 租约
landlord 房东
landlady女房东
rent租金
tenant 房客
patio n.阳台, sliding door n.推拉门
single room 单人房
twin room 双人房
 
two-bedroom apartment
house key 房锁匙
Lecture 3
自然科学类。人们可以观察天王星,学生说通过aircraft就可以。教授说可以通过很远的观察看出它们的组成部分。然后举个例子,天王星通过观察是蓝色的,因此说明有甲烷。然后提出即使看起来一样大的星球密度也是不同的。天王星和Jupiter进行比较,然后说天王星的运行轨迹和地球不一样,还说明离地球很远,温度很低。说明有可能发生过碰撞,然后体积和观察并不能完全了解星球,也需要aircraft去调查。学生问Voyager拍到照片没有。然后又说它的颜色,可以反映它的atmosphere是什么构成的(有甲烷),然后和Jupiter的比较说明它是什么类型的,也可以确定它内部成分。Jupiter的dense比较大。
-TPO部分对应参考 (天文学TPO13-L4/TPO24-L4)
-参考背景
 
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both are of different chemical composition to the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. Thus, astronomers sometimes place them in a separate category called "ice giants". Uranus's atmosphere, although similar to Jupiter's and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, contains more "ices", such as water, ammonia, and methane, along with traces of other hydrocarbons. It is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K (−224.2 °C), and has a complex, layered cloud structure, with water thought to make up the lowest clouds, and methane the uppermost layer of clouds. In contrast, the interior of Uranus is mainly composed of ices and rock.
It is the only planet whose name is derived from a figure from Greek mythology rather than Roman mythology like the other planets, from the Latinized version of the Greek god of the sky, Ouranos. Like the other
 
giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration among those of the planets because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its revolution about the Sun. Its north and south poles therefore lie where most other planets have their equators. In 1986, images from Voyager 2 showed Uranus as a virtually featureless planet in visible light without the cloud bands or storms associated with the other giants. Terrestrial observers have seen signs of seasonal change and increased weather activity in recent years as Uranus approached its equinox. The wind speeds on Uranus can reach 250 meters per second (900 km/h, 560 mph).
Lecture 4
社会科学。某种人类是居住很久的非游牧民族,人类最初不是固定在一个地方的,到后来才长期居住在某个地方。冰川retreat了,在地中海地区,有充足的食物。然后他们的建筑需要石头和其他东西support,并且他们用的工具比如grain the seeds的都很重带不走。首先由于天气变化。有两个例子可以证明,一是房子,二是发现在原始人的居住地有两种动物的骨头。两种动物分别属于两个季节,说明两个季节的人都在这个地方打猎过。
-TPO部分对应参考 (人类学TPO7-L3/TPO22-L1)
-参考背景
 
A nomad is a person with no settled home, who moves from place to place as a way of obtaining food, finding pasture for livestock, or otherwise making a living. The word nomad comes from a Greek word that means one who wanders for pasture. Most nomadic groups follow a fixed annual or seasonal pattern of movements and settlements. Nomadic peoples traditionally travel by animal or canoe or on foot. Today, some nomads travel by motor vehicle. Most nomads live in tents or other portable shelters.
Nomads keep moving for different reasons. Nomadic foragers move in
 
search of game, edible plants, and water. The Australian Aborigines, Negritos of Southeast Asia, and San of Africa, for example, traditionally move from camp to camp to hunt and to gather wild plants. Some tribes of the Americas followed this way of life. Pastoral nomads make their living raising livestock, such as camels, cattle, goats, horses, sheep, or yaks. These nomads travel to find more camels, goats, and sheep through the deserts of Arabia and northern Africa. The Fulani and their cattle travel through the grasslands of Niger in western Africa. Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may also move to raid settled communities or avoid enemies. Nomadic craft workers and merchants travel to find and serve customers. They include the Lohar blacksmiths of India, the Romani (Gypsy) traders, and the Irish Travellers.
Most nomads travel in groups of families called bands or tribes. These groups are based on kinship and marriage ties or on formal agreements of cooperation. A council of adult males makes most of the decisions, though some tribes have chiefs.