Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (40 min) 

In Sections A,B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.?

SECTION A TALK
Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the talk.
1.
A) the coordination based on individual actions      B) the number of individual participants?      C) the necessity of individual actions      D) the requirements for participants?   

2.
A) individual      B) combined      C) distinct      D) social?   

3.
A) the manner of language use   
B) the topic and content of speech?   
C) the interactions between speaker and audience   
D) the relationship between speaker and audience?   

4.
A) hide their real intentions   
B) voice others’ intentions?   
C) play double roles on and off stage   
D) only imitate other people in life?   

5.
A) the absence of spontaneity   
B) the presence of individual actions?   
C) the lack of real intentions   
D) the absence of audience??   

SECTION B INTERVIEW

Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the interview.
6.
A) Students worked very hard.   
B) Students felt they needed a second degree.?   
C) Education was not career?oriented.   
D) There were many specialized subjects.?   

7.
A) To turn out an adequate number of elite for the society.?   
B) To prepare students for their future career.?   
C) To offer practical and utilitarian courses in each programme.?   
D) To set up as many technical institutions as possible.?   

8.
A) require good education   
B) are secondary to education?   
C) don’t call for good education   
D) don’t conflict with education?   

9.
A) Shifting from one programme to another.   
B) Working out ways to reduce student number.?   
C) Emphasizing better quality of education.   
D) Setting up stricter examination standards.?   

10.
A) those who can adapt to different professions   
B) those who have a high flexibility of mind?   
C) those who are thinkers, historians and philosophers   
D) those who possess only highly specialized skills??

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST 

Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 45 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the news.

11. Which of the following regions in the world will witness the sharpest
drop in life expectancy?? 
A) Latin America.   
B) Sub?Saharan Africa.?   
C) Asia.   
D) The Caribbean.?   

12. According to the news, which country will experience small life expectancy drop?? 
A) Burma.   
B) Botswana.   
C) Cambodia.   
D) Thailand.?   

13. The countries that are predicted to experience negative population growth are mainly in ____? 
A) Asia.   
B) Africa.   
C) Latin America.   
D) The Caribbean.??   

14. The trade dispute between the European Union and the US was caused by ____.? 
A) US refusal to accept arbitration by WTO   
B) US imposing tariffs on European steel?   
C) US refusal to pay compensation to EU   
D) US refusal to lower import duties on EU products?   

15. Who will be consulted first before the EU list is submitted to WTO?? 
A) EU member states.   
B) The United States.?   
C) WTO.   
D) The steel corporations.??

SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

In this section you will hear a mini?lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15?minute gap?filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note taking.


Part Ⅱ Proofreading and Error Correction (15 min)

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/”and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.??

Example?
When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never
them on the wall. When a natural history museum?
wants an [ZZ(Z]exhibition[ZZ)], it must often build it. (3)exhibit?
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.

  
One of the most important non-legislative functions of the U.S Congress?
is the power to investigate. This power is usually delegated to committees - either?
standing committees, special committees set for a specific (1)____?
purpose, or joint committees consisted of members of both houses. (2)____?
Investigations are held to gather information on the need for?
future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed,?
to inquire into the qualifications and performance of members and?
officials of the other branches, and in rare occasions, to lay the (3)____?
groundwork for impeachment proceedings. Frequently, committees?
rely outside experts to assist in conducting investigative hearings (4)____?
and to make out detailed studies of issues. (5)____?
There are important corollaries to the investigative power. One?
is the power to publicize investigations and its results. Most (6)____?
committee hearings are open to public and are reported (7)____?
widely in the mass media. Congressional investigations?
nevertheless represent one important tool available to lawmakers (8)____?
to inform the citizenry and to arouse public interests in national issues.
(9)____?
Congressional committees also have the power to compel?
testimony from unwilling witnesses, and to cite for contempt?
of Congress witnesses who refuse to testify and for perjury?
these who give false testimony. (10)____

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)  (开始Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)计时)

In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple?choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

  
TEXT A
Farmers in the developing world hate price fluctuations. It makes it hard to plan ahead. But most of them have little choice: they sell at the price the market sets. Farmers in Europe, the U.S. and Japan are luckier: they receive massive government subsidies in the form of guaranteed prices or direct handouts. Last month U.S. President Bush signed a new farm bill that gives American farmers $190 billion over the next 10 years, or $83 billion more than they had been scheduled to get, and pushes U.S. agricultural support close to crazy European levels. Bush said the step was necessary to “promote farmer independence and preserve the farm way of life for generations”. It is also designed to help the Republican Party win control of the Senate in November’s mid?term elections.?
Agricultural production in most poor countries accounts for up to 50% of GDP, compared to only 3% in rich countries. But most farmers in poor countries grow jus
t enough for themselves and their families. Those who try exporting to the West find their goods whacked with huge tariffs or competing against cheaper subsidized goods. In 1999 the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development concluded that for each dollar developing countries receive in aid they lose up to $14 just because of trade barriers imposed on the export of their manufactured goods. It’s not as if the developing world wants any favours, says Gerald Ssendwula, Uganda’s Minister of Finance. “What we want is for the rich countries to let us compete.”?
Agriculture is one of the few areas in which the Third World can compete. Land and labour are cheap, and as farming methods develop, new technologies should improve output. This is no pie?in?the?sky speculation. The biggest success in Kenya’s economy over the past decade has been the boom in exports of cut flowers and vegetables to Europe. But that may all change in 2008, when Kenya will be slightly too rich to qualify for the “least?developed country” status that allows African producers to avoid paying stiff European import duties on selected agricultural products. With trade barriers in place, the horticulture industry in Kenya will shrivel as quickly as a discarded rose. And while agriculture exports remain the great hope for poor countries, reducing trade barriers in other sectors also works: Americas African Growth and Opportunity Act, which cuts duties on exports of everything from handicrafts to shoes, has proved a boon to Africa’s manufacturers. The lesson: the Third World can prosper if the rich world gives it a fair go.?
This is what makes Bush’s decision to increase farm subsidies last month all the
more depressing. Poor countries have long suspected that the rich world urges rade liberalization only so it can wangle its way into new markets. Such suspicions caused the Seattle trade talks to break down three years ago. But last November members of the World Trade Organization, meeting in Doha, Qatar, finally agreed to a new round of talks designed to open up global trade in agriculture and
textiles. Rich countries assured poor countries, that their concerns were finally being addressed. Bush’s handout last month makes a lie of America’s commitment to those talks and his personal devotion to free trade.?

16. By comparison, farmers ____ receive more government subsidies than others.?

A) in the developing world   
B) in Japan   
C) in Europe   
D) in America?   

17. In addition to the economic considerations, there is a ____ motive behind Bush’s signing of the new farm bill.?

A) partisan   
B) social   
C) financial   
D) cultural?   

18. The message the writer attempts to convey throughout the passage is that ____.?

A) poor countries should be given equal opportunities in trade?   
B) “the least?developed country” status benefits agricultural countries?   
C) poor countries should remove their suspicions about trade liberalization?   
D) farmers in poor countries should also receive the benefit of subsidies   

19. The writer’s attitude towards new farm subsidies in the U.S. is ____.?

A) favourable   
B) ambiguous   
C) critical   
D) reserved??   


TEXT BOscar Wilde said that work is the refuge of people who have nothing better to do. If so, Americans are now among the world’s saddest refugees. Factory workers in the United States are working longer hours than at any time in the past half?century. America once led the rich world in cutting the average working week—from 70 hours in 1850 to less than 40 hours by the 1950s. It seemed natural that as people grew richer they would trade extra earnings for more leisure. Since the 1970s, however, the hours clocked up by American workers have risen, to an average of 42 this year in manufacturing.?Several studies suggest that something similar is happening outside manufacturing: Americans are spending more time at work than they did 20 years ago. Executives and lawyers boast of 80?hour weeks. On holiday, they seek out fax machines and phones as eagerly as Germans bag the best sun?loungers. Yet working time in Europe and Japan continues to fall. In Germany’s engineering industry the working week is to be trimmed from 36 to 35 hours next year. Most Germans get six weeks’ paid annual holiday; even the Japanese now take three weeks. Americans still make do with just two.?Germany responds to this contrast with its usual concern about whether people’s aversion to work is damaging its competitiveness. Yet German workers, like the Japanese, seem to be acting sensibly: as their incomes rise, they can achieve a better standard of living with fewer hours of work. The puzzle is why America, the world’s richest country, sees things differently. It is a puzzle with sinistersocial implications. Parents spend less time with their children, who may be left alone at home for longer. Is it just a coincidence that juvenile crime is on the rise??Some explanations for America’s time at work fail to stand up to scrutiny. One blames weak trade unions that leave workers open to exploitation. Are workers being forced by cost?cutting firms to toil harder just to keep their jobs? A recent study by two American economists, Richard Freeman and Linda Bell, suggests not: when asked, Americans actually want to work longer hours. Most German workers, in contrast, would rather work less.?Then, why do Americans want to work harder? One reason may be that the real earnings of many Americans have been stagnant or falling during the past two decades. People work longer merely to maintain their living standards. Yet many higher?skilled workers, who have enjoyed big increases in their real pay, have been working harder too. Also, one reason for the slow growth of wages has been the rapid growth in employment—which is more or less where the argument began.?Taxes may have something to do with it. People who work an extra hour in America are allowed to keep more of their money than those who do the same in Germany. Falls in marginal tax rates in America since the 1970s have made it all the more profitable to work longer.?None of these answers really explains why the century?long decline in working hours has gone into reverse in America but not elsewhere (though Britain shows signs of following America’s lead). Perhaps cultural differences—the last refuge of the defeated economist—are at play. Economists used to believe that once workers earned enough to provide for their basic needs and allow for a few luxuries, their incentive to work would be eroded, like lions relaxing after a kill. But humans are more susceptible to advertising than lions. Perhaps clever marketing has ensured that “basic needs”—for a shower with built?in TV, for a rocket?propelled car—expand continuously. Shopping is already one of America’s most popular pastimes. But it requires money—hence more work and less leisure.?Or try this: the television is not very good, and baseball and hockey keep being wiped out by strikes. Perhaps Wilde was right. Maybe Americans have nothing better to do.?
20. In the United States, working longer hours is ____.?

A) confined to the manufacturing industry   
B) a traditional practice in some sectors?   
C) prevalent in all sectors of society   
D) favoured by the economists?   

21. According to the third paragraph, which might be one of the consequences of working longer hours??

A) Rise in employees’ working efficiency.   
B) Rise in the number of young offenders.?   
C) Rise in people’s living standards.   
D) Rise in competitiveness.?   

22. Which of the following is the cause of working longer hours stated by
the writer??


A) Expansion of basic needs.   
B) Cultural differences.?   
C) Increase in real earnings.   
D) Advertising.??   


TEXT CThe fox really exasperated them both. As soon as they had let the fowls out, inthe early summer mornings, they had to take their guns and keep guard; and thenagain as soon as evening began to mellow, they must go once more. And he was so sly. He slid along in the deep grass; he was difficult as a serpent to see. And he seemed to circumvent the girls deliberately. Once or twice March had caught sight of the white tip of his brush, or the ruddy shadow of him in the deep grass, and she had let fire at him. But he made no account of this.?The trees on the wood?edge were a darkish, brownish green in the full light—for it was the end of August. Beyond, the naked, copper?like shafts and limbs of the pine trees shone in the air. Nearer the rough grass, with its long, brownish stalks all agleam, was full of light. The fowls were round about—the ducks were still swimming on the pond under the pine trees. March looked at it all, saw it all, and did not see it. She heard Banford speaking to the fowls in the distance—and she did not hear. What was she thinking about? Heaven knows. Her consciousness was, as it were, held back.?She lowered her eyes, and suddenly saw the fox. He was looking up at her. His chin was pressed down, and his eyes were looking up. They met her eyes. And he knew her. She was spellbound—she knew he knew her. So he looked into her eyes, and her soul failed her. He knew her, he has not daunted.?She struggled, confusedly she came to herself, and saw him making off, with slow leaps over some fallen boughs, slow, impudent jumps. Then he glanced over his shoulder, and ran smoothly away. She saw his brush held smooth like a feather, she saw his white buttocks twinkle. And he was gone, softly, soft as the wind.?She put her gun to her shoulder, but even then pursed her mouth, knowing it was nonsense to pretend to fire. So she began to walk slowly after him, in the direction he had gone, slowly, pertinaciously. She expected to find him. In her heart she was determined to find him. What she would do when she saw him again she did not consider. But she was determined to find him. So she walked abstractedly about on the edge of the wood, with wide, vivid dark eyes, and a faint flush in her cheeks. She did not think. In strange mindlessness she walked hither and thither...?As soon as supper was over, she rose again to go out, without saying why.?She took her gun again and went to look for the fox. For he had lifted his eyesupon her, and his knowing look seemed to have entered her brain. She did not somuch think of him: she was possessed by him. She saw his dark, shrewd, unabashedeye looking into her, knowing her. She felt him invisibly master her spirit. She knew the way he lowered his chin as he looked up, she knew his muzzle, the golden brown, and the greyish white. And again she saw him glance over his shoulder at her, half inviting, half contemptuous and cunning. So she went, with her great startled eyes glowing, her gun under her arm, along the wood edge. Meanwhilethe night fell, and a great moon rose above the pine trees.?
23. At the beginning of the story, the fox seems to the all EXCEPT ____.?

A) cunning   
B) fierce   
C) defiant   
D) annoying?   

24. As the story proceeds, March begins to feel under the spell of ____.?

A) the light   
B) the trees   
C) the night   
D) the fox?   

25. Gradually March seems to be in a state of ____.?

A) blankness   
B) imagination   
C) sadness   
D) excitement?   

26. At the end of the story, there seems to be a sense of ____ between March and the fox.?

A) detachment   
B) anger   
C) intimacy   
D) conflict?   

27. The passage creates an overall impression of ____.?

A) mystery   
B) horror   
C) liveliness   
D) contempt??   


TEXT DThe banners are packed, the tickets booked. The glitter and white overalls havebeen bought, the gas masks just fit and the mobile phones are ready. All that remains is to get to the parties.?This week will see a feast of pan?European protests. It started on Bastille Day, last Saturday, with the French unions and immigrants on the streets and the first demonstrations in Britain and Germany about climate change. It will continue tomorrow and Thursday with environmental and peace rallies against President Bush. But the big one is in Genoa, on Friday and Saturday, where the G8 leaders will meet behind the lines of 18,000 heavily armed police.?Unlike Prague, Gothenburg, Cologne or Nice, Genoa is expected to be Europe’s Seattle, the coming together of the disparate strands of resistance to corporate globalisation.?Neither the protesters nor the authorities know what will happen, but some things are predictable. Yes, there will be violence and yes, the mass media will focus on it. What should seriously concern the G8 is not so much the violence, the numbers in the streets or even that they themselves look like idiots hiding behind the barricades, but that the deep roots of a genuine new version of internationalism are growing.?For the first time in a generation, the international political and economic condition is in the dock. Moreover, the protesters are unlikely to go away, their confidence is growing rather than waning, their agendas are merging, the protests are spreading and drawing in all ages and concerns.?No single analysis has drawn all the strands of the debate together. In the meantime, the global protest “movement” is developing its own language, texts, agendas, myths, heroes and villains. Just as the G8 leaders, world bodies and businesses talk increasingly from the same script, so the protesters’ once disparatepolitical and social analyses are converging. The long?term project of governments and world bodies to globalise capital and development is being mirrored by the globalisation of protest.?But what happens next? Governments and world bodies are unsure which way to turn. However well they are policed, major protests reinforce the impression of indifferent elites, repression of debate, overreaction to dissent, injustice and unaccountable power.?Their options—apart from actually embracing the broad agenda being put to them—are to retreat behind even higher barricades, repress dissent further, abandon global meetings altogether or, more likely, meet only in places able to physically resist the masses.?Brussels is considering building a super fortress for international meetings. Genoa may be the last of the European super?protests.?
28. According to the context, the word “parties” at the end of the first paragraph refers to ____.?

A) the meeting of the G8 leaders   
B) the protests on Bastille Day?   
C) the coming pan?European protests   
D) the big protest to be held in Genoa?   

29. According to the passage, economic globalisation is paralleled by ____.?

A) the emerging differences in the global protest movement?   
B) the disappearing differences in the global protest movement?   
C) the growing European concern about globalisation?   
D) the increase in the number of protesters?   

30. According to the last paragraph, what is Brussels considering doing??

A) Meeting in places difficult to reach.   
B) Further repressing dissent.?   
C) Accepting the protesters’ agenda.   
D) Abandoning global meetings.   

(结束Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)计时) 

SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING (10 MIN)  (开始SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING (10 MIN)计时)

In this section there are seven passages with ten multiple?choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

  
TEXT E First read the question. 31.The main purpose of the passage is to ____.? A.demonstrate how to prevent crime B.show the seriousness of crime? C.look into the causes of crime D.call for more government efforts? Now go through TEXT E quickly to answer question 31.? For three weeks, every night at 11 p.m., correspondents, officers and judges from justice courts, police departments and prisons, psychiatrists, criminologists, victims and even criminals in prisons made their appearance on TV to debate on a topic “Crime in the United States”.? Indeed, crime has been disturbing the American people and has become a serious social problem just next to the unemployment problem. Some figures are terrifying : 1 of 4 Americans has been a victim of some kind of crimes; nearly 22 million crimecases occurred last year throughout the country. A simple arithmetic calculation indicates that on average, a crime is being committed in every 2 seconds. Now the Americans are living in a horrible environment. Their safety and property are threatened by various crimes: robbery, theft, rape, kidnapping, murder, arson, vandalism and violence.? The most worrisome problem comes from the fact that about one?third of crime cases were committed by the juvenile and 53% of criminals in jails are youngsters below 25. A poll indicates that about 73% of citizens said they avoided teenagers in streets, especially at night.? To protect themselves from crime, according to a released figure, 52% of Americans keep guns at home. But some gun owners turn out to be potential criminals. Some people demand that strict law for gun control be enforced; but others oppose the ban of gun. No decision is in sight.? Some experts said poverty, unemployment and racial discrimination are the cause of crime. They cited figures to show that 47% of crime cases were committed by t he black, though they account for only about 12% of the population of the nation . Others argued that about 54% of convicted criminals came from families associated with these evils.? The American state government and federal government spend billions of dollars each year in maintaining the police departments and jails. But police authorities complain that they have not sufficient well?trained hands and advanced equipment to detect and stop crimes. Several cases of criminal insurgence were reported as a result of resentment at overcrowded prisons. Taxpayers complain that they pay more and more tax but receive less and less protection from crime for their lives and property.? Though the host of the live TV programme made great efforts to search for a solution, so far no participant could put forward a measure that was approved by most of the attendants.
31. The main purpose of the passage is to ____.? 

A) demonstrate how to prevent crime   
B) show the seriousness of crime?   
C) look into the causes of crime   
D) call for more government efforts   


TEXT F First read the question.? 32.What is the main topic of the following passage?? A.Differences between modes of learning.? B.Deficiencies of formal learning.? C.Advantages of informal learning.? D.Social context and learning systems.? Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 32.? The term “formal learning” is used in this paper to refer to all learning that takes place in the classroom, irrespective of whether such learning is informed by conservative or progressive ideologies. “Informal learning”, on the other hand, is used to refer to learning which takes place outside the classroom.? These definitions provide the essential, though by no means sole, difference bet ween formal and informal learning. Formal learning is decontextualised from daily life and, indeed, as Scribner and Cole (1973:553) have observed, may actually “promote ways of learning and thinking which often run counter to those nurtured in practical daily life”. A characteristic feature of formal learning is the centrality of activities that are not closely paralleled by activities outside the classroom. The classroom can prepare for, draw on, and imitate the challenges of adult life outside the classroom, but it cannot, by its nature, consist of these challenges.? In doing this, language plays a critical role as the major channel for information exchange. “Success” in the classroom requires a student to master this abstract code. As Bernstein (1969:152) noted, the language of the classroom is more similar to the language used by middle?class families than that used by working?class families. Middle?class children thus find it easier to acquire the language of the classroom than their working?class peers.? Informal learning, in contrast, occurs in the setting to which it relates, making learning immediately relevant. In this context, language does not occupy such an important role: the child’s experience of learning is more holistic, involving sight, touch, taste, and smell—senses that are under?utilised in the classroom.?While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role, informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child’s development. Adults or older children who are proficient in the skill or activity provide - sometime s unintentionally - target models of behaviour in the course of everyday activity. Informal learning, therefore, can take place at any time and is not subject to the limitations imposed by institutional timetabling.? The motivation of the learner provides another critical difference between the two modes of learning. The formal learner is generally motivated by some kind of external goal such as parental approval, social status, and potential financial reward. The informal learner, however, tends to be motivated by successful completion of the task itself and the partial acquisition of adult status.
32. What is the main topic of the following passage?? 

A) Differences between modes of learning.?   
B) Deficiencies of formal learning.?   
C) Advantages of informal learning.?   
D) Social context and learning systems.?   


TEXT G First read the question. 33.The three approaches mentioned in the passage aim at ____.? A.restructuring economy? B.improving the tax system? C.improving the living conditions? D.reducing poverty? Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 33. As a rule, it is essential that the poor’s productive capabilities be mobilized and the conditions for developing these human resources be improved. In this con nection, German development policy has developed the following three approaches: ? — Structural reform: Structural reform is the preferred approach for reducing poverty because it eliminates the causes of poverty rather than just its symptoms. It is vital that economic, political and social conditions which can alleviate poverty be established at national and international levels. Efforts at international level focus on fair conditions for international trade and competition. At national level, the poor must be helped through structural reform such as the introduction of democratic government, options for independent private enterprise, decentralization and agricultural reform. Development policy tools for realizing such reforms include political dialogue, political advisory services, structural adjustment measures and personnel and material support for reform efforts in the government, business and administrative sectors.?— Direct measures: Projects of this category are aimed at directly helping the poor and improving their living conditions or increasing their job options and earning potential. Of special importance are those projects which provide help for self?help in reducing poverty. The material support and advisory services offered by these projects reinforce the poor’s will to help themselves and help eable them to lead self?sufficient lives. Typical direct aid projects include the construction of simple housing by self?help groups, the creation of a savings and loan system for the poorer segments of society and support for women’s self?help organizations.? —Indirect measures: A project’s beneficiaries - its target group - are not only often difficult to identify clearly, they are also not necessarily all poor people. In these cases, the project in question must be integrated into one of the partner nation’s overall or sector?specific policies that aim at reducing poverty. A good illustration of this type of project is the use of advisory services to improve the tax system. Advising and upgrading the qualifications of personnel working in the fiscal system can lead to increased tax revenues which could be allocated for anti?poverty measures. In keeping with this focus, German development assistance concentrates on the poorest nations and on projects to reduce poverty. In 1993, some 10 percent of the commitments Germany made for bilateral financial and technical assistance went to self?help projects aimed at reducing poverty. Basic needs projects comprised 48 percent of all projects and almost 30 percent of the commitments made for financial and technical assistance were allocated for the world’s least developed countries (LDCs).
33. The three approaches mentioned in the passage aim at ____.? 

A) restructuring economy?   
B) improving the tax system?   
C) improving the living conditions?   
D) reducing poverty?   


TEXT H First read the question. 34.What is the following passage mainly concerned with?? A.Educational facilities in Africa.? B.Founding a university for women.? C.Agricultural production in Zimbabwe.? D.Women’s role in agricultural production.? Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 34. Access to education facilities is inadequate in sub?Saharan Africa. And women and girls there face greater disadvantages. They are often denied education as customs dictate they marry early and have children.? Two Zimbabwean academics plan to open a university to help African women whose education was interrupted by either family commitments or financial constraints. The university will initially be in Harare, but will be relocated to Marondera, 80 kilometres east. The academics, Hope Sadza, former deputy commissioner of Zimbabwe’s Public Service Commission and Fay Chung, former Minister of Education, are to open the university this month. It will initially have 400 students.? Students will be split into groups of 100 and placed in one of four faculties: social science, agriculture, environmental studies or science and technology. The university is for women aged 25 or older.? The need for a university for women is more acute in Africa, where women are the poorest and most disadvantaged. When they do have access to education they often must endure sexual harassment. Most women drop out because they lack educational materials or the schools are inaccessible.? “In Africa, women till the land and produce the bulk of the food, yet they have no understanding about marketing,” Sadza siad. “Agriculture is another area w here we can empower women.”? The university will have a 285?hectare farm and courses will include agricultural production and marketing.? Women account for 80 per cent of Africa’s agricultural production, but have no control over either the resources or policies.? The university since August has raised about Z$32.5 million (US$591,000) in donations and pledges. The university will be open to students from across Africa. It will be the second women’s university - after Sudan’s Ahfad University - in Africa.
34. What is the following passage mainly concerned with?? 

A) Educational facilities in Africa.?   
B) Founding a university for women.?   
C) Agricultural production in Zimbabwe.?   
D) Women’s role in agricultural production.?   


TEXT I First read the questions. 35.Which president advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers?? A.Xu Yangqiu. B.Wu Yifang. C.Tao Xingzhi. D.Chen Heqin.? 36.What is Guo Juefu?? A.A painter. B.A poet. C.A biologist. D.A psychologist.? Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer questions 35 and 36. Many presidents of the century?old Nanjing Normal University (NJNU) have put forward insightful and inspiring education theories and practices, which have had a far?reaching impact on China’s education history.? Jiang Qian and Guo Bingwen proposed a school?running principle that advocated the balance between versatility and specialization, liberal arts and sciences.? Tao Xingzhi, a well?known educator, carried out many important reforms in the university. For the first time in China, he advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers and opened adult training classes in summer vacations.? Wu Yifang, China’s first woman university president, emphasized normal education, regarding it as the parent engine and heavy industry of education.? Chen Heqin established a Chinese?style and scientific theory for modern educati on for children.? There have also been many noted scholars and artists.? Educator Xu Yangqiu was one of China’s earliest scholars to study American education theory.? Professor Luo Bingwen devoted himself to normal education theory and Chinese and foreign education history, advocating that teachers should be models of virtue for the students so that their behaviour guides the students.? Psychologist Guo Juefu is an important figure in China’s psychological history. China Psychological History〖WTBZ〗, a book he authored, has made its mark in international psychological circles.?Zhang Daqian, a well?known master of traditional Chinese painting, advised his students to read books systematically and selectively to rid themselves of worldliness, fickleness and pedantry. Zhang also pointed out that success comes largely from one’s own endeavours, but partly from circumstance.? Sun Wang, a poet versed in the poems popular in the Tang Dynasty (AD 618?907), told students to map out a long?term schedule for their studies and to work to wards fulfillment of their goal phase by phase.? Biologist Chen Bangjie overcame formidable difficulties to collect plant specimen and became ?China’s? father of bryology. Generations of talented educators have given Nanjing Normal University a fine reputation.
35. Which president advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers?? 

A) Xu Yangqiu.   
B) Wu Yifang.   
C) Tao Xingzhi.   
D) Chen Heqin.?   

36. What is Guo Juefu?? 

A) A painter.   
B) A poet.   
C) A biologist.   
D) A psychologist.?   


TEXT J First read the questions. 37.The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives is scheduled to be completed within ____.? A.22 months B.20 months? C.16 weeks D.14 weeks? 38.If you are in Malaysia, when is your attendance date?? A.January 17??th?. B.January 15??th?.? C.January 29??th?. D.February 27??th?.? Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer questions 37 and 38. CHICAGO?Worldwide campuses.?World?renowned faculty.?World?class M.B.A. degree.? A world of opportunity. Limitless, lifelong opportunity awaits you when you attend the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, and now you can do so from anywhere in the world.? Experience international business firsthand at the only top?ranked graduate school with campuses worldwide. The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives spreads 16 weeks of class sessions over 20 months so you can earn this renowned degree without leaving your job or relocating. Base your studies in Singapore; then collaborate with executives at our Chicago and Barcelona campuses. Learn not just the business theories of today but the business framework of tomorrow from the most acclaimed faculty in the world. Establish a global network of accomplished peers. And benefit for the rest of your life from the leadership training, the thinking, the relationships that become yours at Chicago GSB.? If you are a top?level manager seeking an unparalleled general management education, apply to the Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives.?And be among those who shape the future.? The University of Chicago Graduate School of Business? Where world?class leaders emerge.? Chicago GSB / Asia Campus? 101 Penang Road, Singapore 238466? telephone 65 238 2196〓fax 65 835 6483?email singapore.inquiries@gsb.uchicago.edu? www.gsb.uchicago.edu/execMBASia Please reserve your attendance by fax or email.? Jakarta 15/Jan,Tuesday? The Grand Hyatt Hotel 19:00-21:30? Manila 24/Jan,Tuesday Taipei The Shangri?La Edsa Plaza 19:00-21:30 The Grand Formosa Regent? Hotel Hotel? 17/Jan,Tuesday Kuala Lumpur 19/Feb,Tuesday? 19:00-21:30 The Regent Hotel 19:00-21:30? 29/Jan,Tuesday? Bangkok 19:00-21:30 Singapore? The Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel GSB Asia Campus? 22/Jan,Tuesday Hong Kong 27/Feb,Tuesday? 19:00-21:30 The Mandarin Oriental Hotel 19:00-21:30? 05/Feb,Tuesday? Tokyo 19:00-21:30? The Imperial Hotel
37. The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives is scheduled to be completed within ____.? 

A) 22 months   
B) 20 months?   
C) 16 weeks   
D) 14 weeks?   

38. If you are in Malaysia, when is your attendance date?? 

A) January 17??th?.   
B) January 15??th?.?   
C) January 29??th?.   
D) February 27??th?.?   


TEXT K First read the questions. 39.Who has written Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory?? A.Michael G.Zey. B.Stephen Bertman.? C.Don Tapscott, et al. D.Marvin Cetron et al.? 40.Which book is a collection of papers?? A.Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs.? B.Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever.? C.The Future Factor: The Five Forces Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human De stiny.? D.The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the Uni versity.? Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 39 and 40. Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs? by Don Tapscott, David Ticoll, and Alex Lowy.? Harvard Business School Press. 2000. 272 pages. Electronic business webs have demolished the rules of competition. Innovative partnerships of digitally linked producers, suppliers, service providers, and customers are accelerating productivity and generating wealth in entirely new ways. This book offers a behind?the?scenes look at success stories such as Linux, eBay, and Cisco, and provides a step?by?step process for implementing an effective business?web strategy.? Regular Price:$27.50? The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the University edited by Sohail Inayatullah and Jennifer Gidley.? Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. 2000. 270 pages.? This anthology of essays from scholars around the world describes how the forces of technology and economic globalization may alter what we think of as higher education. Topics include the virtual university, paying for college, feminist a lternative universities, the role of corporations in higher education,and the ri se of “multiversities”.? Regular Price:$65.00? The Future Factor: The Five Force Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human Destiny by Michael G.Zey.? McGraw?Hill. 2000. 289 pages. This optimistic vision of the human future argues that unprecedented opportuniti es for growth are emerging from breathtaking innovations in biotechnology, comput ing, robotics, medicine, energy development, and space technology. Powerful new forces altering society and the global economy include cybergenesis, the merging of humans and smart machines, and biogenesis, the harnessing of genetic technol ogies to improve ourselves.? Regular Price: $24.95? Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever? by Marvin Cetron and Owen Davies.? St. Martin’s Press. 1998. 224 pages. With advances in medicine and new gene research, the human life?span could exte nd hundreds of years. But a future of billions of people “cheating death” coul d have devastating impacts on societies, the economy, the environment, and fami ly life.? Regular Price: $21.95? Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory? by Stephen Bertman.? Praeger. 2000. 176 pages. American society is losing its memory: 60% of American adults cannot name the pr esident who ordered the dropping of the first atomic bomb, and 42% of college se niors cannot place the Civil War in the correct half of the nineteenth century. This loss of culture memory, as insidious as Alzheimer’s disease, eats away at t he soul of the nation, says Bertman, author of ?Hyperculture?. He argues that, t o build a culture worthy of the future, Americans need to move away from their m aterialistic, present?oriented lives and get more in touch with other dimension s of time.? Regular Price: $35.00
39. Who has written Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory?? 

A) Michael G.Zey.   
B) Stephen Bertman.?   
C) Don Tapscott, et al.   
D) Marvin Cetron et al.?   

40. Which book is a collection of papers?? 
A) Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs.?      B) Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever.?      C) The Future Factor: The Five Forces Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human De stiny.?      D) The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the University.?   

Part Ⅳ Translation (60 min)

SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH?
Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

在人际关系问题上我们不要太浪漫主义。人是很有趣的,往往在接触一个人时首先看到的都是他或她的优点。这一点颇像是在餐馆里用餐的经验。开始吃头盘或冷碟的时候,印象很好。吃头两个主菜时,也是赞不绝口。愈吃愈趋于冷静,吃完了这顿宴席,缺点就都找出来了。于是转喜为怒,转赞美为责备挑剔,转首肯为摇头。这是因为,第一,开始吃的时候你正处于饥饿状态,而饿了吃糠甜如蜜,饱了吃蜜也不甜。第二,你初到一个餐馆,开始举筷时有新鲜感,新盖的茅房三天香,这也可以叫做“陌生化效应”吧。

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

Translate the underlined part of the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

For me the most interesting thing about a solitary life, and mine has been that for the last twenty years, is that it becomes increasingly rewarding. When I can wake up and watch the sun rise over the ocean, as I do most days, and know that I have an entire day ahead, uninterrupted, in which to write a few pages, take a walk with my dog, read and listen to music, I am flooded with happiness.? I’m lonely only when I am overtired, when I have worked too long without a brea k, when fro the time being I feel empty ad need filling up. And I am lonely somet imes when I come back home after a lecture trip, when I have seen a lot of peopl e and talked a lot, and am full to the brim with experience that needs to be sor ted out.? Then for a little while the house feels huge and empty, and I wonder where my se lf is hiding. It has to be recaptured slowly by watering the plants and perhaps, by looking again at each one as though it were a person.? It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains, but the moment co mes when the worlds falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconsc ious, bringing back all I have recently experienced to be explored and slowly un derstood.

Part Ⅴ Writing (60min)

It was reported in the press some time ago that a few second-and third-year students in a provincial university decided to try their hands at business in order to get prepared for the future. They opened six small shops near their university. Their teachers and classmates had different opinions about this phenomenon. Some thought that the students’ business experience would help them adapt better to society after graduation, while others held a negative view, saying that running shops might occupy too much of the students’ time and energy which should otherwise be devoted to their academic study. What do you think? Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:

Should University Students Go in for Business?? In the first part of your writing you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should brig what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.? Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.


A GUIDE TO TEM-8 英语专业八级考试题型分析与应试技巧

博亿堂理解(Listening Comprehension)

题型分析与应试技巧

英语专业八级考试的博亿堂理解部分包括四个项目:Section A,Section B,Section C与Section D。前三项,考试时间共20分钟。    ?

Section A:Talk ?

Section B:Conversation or Interview?

    Section C:News Broadcast?

    以上各项均由五道选择题组成。每道选择题后有15秒间隙。要求学生从试卷所给的四

个选择项中选出一个最佳答案。录音语速为每分钟140—170词。?

    Section D:Note-taking and Gap-filling?

本项目是由一个700词左右的讲座组成。要求学生边听边做笔记。然后作填空练习。考试时间约20分钟,其中听录音时间约为5分钟,答题时间为15分钟。?

针对八级考试博亿堂部分的特点,我们可以从局部理解和整体理解两个方面加以探讨。综观八级考试的博亿堂考题,我们可以发现所有的试题类型都是由what, who, where, when, why 和 how所包括的内容,即事件、人物、地点、时间、原因和方式构成的。八级考试博亿堂材料长短不一,或针对某一现象进行叙述,或根据某一事件展开对话(面试或访谈)。考生必须在一个大情景下抓住事情的要点和事件的发展线索后才能答题。大多数英语专业学生具有良好的博亿堂基本功,他们需要提高的是博亿堂的广度和深度,因此,考生在日常的学习生活中必须有意识地多听多练。同时,我们建议同学们在练习博亿堂时注意以下几个问题:?

  

选择适当的博亿堂材料

实际上,“听”和“说”不分家的原则也体现在英语专业八级考试中。八级考试博亿堂均选自一般口语性较强、反映现代生活的英语资料。因此,考生可以集中精力多听一些大众媒介英语,进行实战演习。所选博亿堂材料在难度上应低于阅读材料,因为读不懂的东西一般听不懂。来源于报刊、杂志、电影、电视的英语是博亿堂练习的极好的材料。英语专业的学生,特别是高年级学生,可以通过看原版电影或听电影录音剪辑来练习博亿堂。一般学校都会有丰富的音像资料,许多城市还专门开辟了英语电视频道,电视英语新闻对考生应付八级考试第三部分有很大的帮助。?

  

选用恰当的练习方法

练习博亿堂时,大家可采取“精听”和“泛听”两种方式结合来训练自己,前者的重点在于深度,后者则注重广度。精听的目的在于从what, who, where, when, why 和 how等角度入手,弄懂与之有关的所有问题,即所有细节性问题;而泛听则是听懂大意即可。通过这两方面长期不懈的努力,考生最终能获得用英语进行思维的能力。如果能做到用英语思考问题,那么做对几道试题是不会有太多困难的,因为试题从广义上也就分为两大类,局部理解题和通篇理解题,前者属于我们精听的范畴,而后者则属于我们泛听的对象。听的目的在于懂,那么,如何衡量自己是否听懂了呢?一个行之有效的方法就是“复述”。我们在听完一个片段后,可将所听的内容重复一遍,如果具有较高的准确度,就说明真正听懂了;否则需要再听一遍,如果连听几遍还无法较为满意地复述,说明所听内容太难,应予以更换。?

与此同时,我们还应通过“读”帮助“听”,特别是在听新闻方面。与其他博亿堂材料相比,

新闻具有其鲜明的特点。新闻的内容特别广泛,几乎覆盖我们生活的各个方面。听英语新闻

的最大一个障碍是对新闻词汇的生疏。因此,在学习听新闻的初级阶段,我们可以阅读一些

大众媒体文献,如报纸、刊物,从中积累一些新闻用语,一些重要组织的名称如EEC(Europ

ean Economic Community)欧洲经济共同体、IMF(International Monetary Fund)国际货

币基金会、OPEC(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 石油输出国组织、

NASA(National Aeronautics and Space Administration)国家航空和航天局;单词如upsur

ge(高涨)、manoeuvre(策略)、escalation(升级)、allegation(断言)等等。对现

实生活各个领域的词汇都略知一二是听懂新闻的基础。新闻作为一种语言测试题型也是语言

在现实生活中真实运用的体现。在八级考试考试中,新闻的内容均为考生所熟悉的一般性政治、经济、娱乐等方面的信息,在题材上不会给考生造成障碍,其目的只是测试考生从VOA或BBC获取新闻的能力。与其他博亿堂练习一样,提高听英语新闻的能力的唯一途径也是多听。在英语新闻博亿堂训练初级阶段,考生可借助有文字稿的教材帮助训练。考生在训练时应提倡首先在不看文字材料的情况下直接听录音答题,在多次不能听懂时再看文字稿。经过一段时间这样的训练后,多数同学的博亿堂能力都能有明显提高。在达到完全脱稿就能基本听懂新闻的要求后,考生可过渡到定时定量收听英语新闻的练习。练习时还要注意我们在前面提到的一个问题,即听懂是一个方面,如果能做到在听懂后能将一则新闻的重要细节和大意在脑海里回顾一遍或复述一遍,这对我们博亿堂能力达到质的飞跃有极大的帮助。倘若坚持“听”与“复述”相结合的练习,对大家的博亿堂及用英语进行思维的能力有很大的提高。?

八级考试博亿堂第四部分是一个将博亿堂和做笔记填空结合的题型。该项目是一个700字左右的讲座,考生边听边做笔记,然后完成填空练习。听讲座记笔记是学生学习生活不可缺少的环节,这一题型正是考察学生根据博亿堂材料做笔记并整理笔记完成工作的能力。八级博亿堂第四部分这一题型实际上分为理解、找出要点、笔录和填空等步骤。值得注意的是考试中考生所需要填空的单词均是有关讲座内容的实词,而不是语法功能词,因为该项目的测试目的是考察考生对讲座内容的理解。考生在平时训练时可选择听一些就某一问题进行探讨、有一定深度的录音材料,一边听一边就重要的情节做笔记,然后根据笔记写出一篇摘要。考生如果能成功地做到这一点,就无须担心考试中的这一题型,因为考试中考生用于填空的文字材料也就是基于博亿堂录音的一篇内容摘要。?

以上谈到的是考生必须在平时打下牢固的语言基础,下面再让我们看一下考试过程中应注意的一些技巧。?

  

1.预读考题

博亿堂与语法、阅读不同,语法、阅读可以读完再回读,但博亿堂的内容是暂时、一次性的,因此学会抓要点、关键词,以意群为单位理解全文,就变得相当重要。在八级博亿堂测试部分中,问题都已印在考卷上,同时在各部分题目前都印有一段题目指令,磁带上也录有相应指令,由于每年考试这部分指令都基本相同,考生只要熟悉这些内容,就可以利用播放指令的这段时间,或利用两道题目之间的10秒停顿间隙,快速浏览一下已印在试卷上的问题和四个选择项,从而获取听音前的思考线索和对听音内容的背景提示,这样在听的过程中,就可以有针对性地有选择地听原文,从而抓住相关信息,滤除不相关的内容,减轻听的负担和记忆的负荷,以提高听的有效性,同时,通过阅读干扰项,多些背景提示,再分析四个选择项的异同,以此作为线索,听的时候,做到有的放矢。例如看到下面一题时,我们即可知道整个录音很可能与抢劫有关。?

What strikes the woman most about the male robber is his ____.?

    A. clothes  B. age  C. physique  D. appearance?

我们一旦获悉即将听到的一篇材料与抢劫有关的信息后,大脑就很自然地启动一些我们所储存的关于抢劫的信息,从而主动权就掌握在考生手里。反之,如果不进行试题预读,我们可能在听完全部材料的三分之一后才知道其中心议题是抢劫。这就是预读的重要性。不仅如此,我们还可以利用多余的答题时间来达到预读的目的。题与题之间一般有15秒的答题时间,如果考生只用5秒就做好了第一题,那么余下的10秒就可以用于预读第2题、第3题等。八级博亿堂考试的四个部分中,只有第四部分考生不能预读,因为考生在做完笔录后才发给该部分答卷即ANSWER SHEET ONE。?

  

2.仔细审题

审题似乎是一个老生常谈的话题,但却是十分重要的问题。这里所说的审题并非指考生完全看不懂题目,而是指由于审题不仔细而捕捉不到问题的核心。我们来看看下面一道题:?  The modern electronic anti-noise devices ____.?

A. are an update version of the traditional methods?

B. share similarities with the traditional methods?

C. are as inefficient as the traditional methods?

D. are based on an entirely new working principle?

以上问题的核心在于领会 modern electronic anti-noise devices(现代抗噪音电子装置

)的定义,而不仅仅是抗噪音电子装置),更不是一般的 anti-noise devices(抗噪音装

置)。录音中很可能出现有关anti-noise device在各个不同发展时期不同特点的信息,如

果不认真审题,就会出现张冠李戴的错误。另外,审题的仔细还表现在领悟特殊形式的题干

,如否定式Which of the following is INCORRECT,或排除式All the following are true EXCEPT,等等。正确审题是答题的关键,否则博亿堂能力再好的考生也不会有好的成绩。

  

3.领会讲话者的语气

听懂说话者的语气可帮助我们回答问题。这一点在八级考试博亿堂第二部分(对话或面试)显得更为重要。例如,Well, I’m afraid I do. But I might be mistaken. 表示了说话者不肯定的语气。有时字面意思与说话者所要表达的意图相反,这时考生更多的是依赖讲话者的口气来答题。如,I’d be sacked if I accepted your offer.所表达的是拒绝。讲话的口气是多种多样的,它可以表达惊奇、犹豫、挑战、讽刺、安慰、决心等,正确领会它们能做到事半功倍。?

  

4.听与记录同时进行

考生可在听的过程中适当做些笔录因为仅凭脑力无法记住长达数分钟的讨论或对话。考生在记录时不必拘于形式,做一些只要自己能明白的简单符号记录即可,特别是众多的数字、时间、日期、人名、地名更需要我们做些笔记。而且,八级考试博亿堂第四部分正是考察“听 和“记”的同步能力。?

八级考试博亿堂第四部分记笔记填空是较为复杂的博亿堂测试项目,有其自身特点,掌握这些特点对考生大有好处。该部分录音通常是一篇具有较强逻辑性的文章,从几个方面论证或叙述一个问题。因为考生须填空的词是基于整个问题要点及其重要细节的实词,所以考生在记笔记时应重点盯住这些内容,而非繁文褥节。举个例子,如果录音中出现了关于一个问题的三四个例证,如为了说明  fast  food而列举了  Kentucky  Fried  Chicken,McDonalds,Pizza Hut等等,考生最多记住一两个即可。另外,用于填空的词不一定非得是录音中出现的词,凡是在语义上与原文一致且语法上与填空短文相适应的单词均可。本书练习题该部分并不局限于书中所给出的答案,可能的答案也许有更多,大家可自行掌握。填空时,考生一定要注意所填单词的词性准确无误。我们发现,有的考生能找出一个意义相应的词,但不是很注意词性,因为该填动词的地方一定要填动词,如不能用intense来代替intensify。另外,倘若所填单词在句首,该单词首字母要大写。?

    最后,希望广大考生千万不要盲目信仰应试技巧而忽视语言基本能力的训练,因为技巧只不过是以扎实语言基本功为基础的一点儿辅助性的东西而已。??

  

校对与改错(Proofreading and Error Correction)

  

题型分析与应试技巧

校对与改错是英语专业八级考试的第二部分。该部分采用主观测试题型。该项目包含两个部分:答题要求和一篇要求修改的短文。答题要求部分说明修改短文的三种方法:加入、删去和改动某一单词,并举例说明。要求修改的短文长度为200字左右。短文的体裁和题材不超出学生所熟悉的范围。短文内含10个错误;错误都出现在标有题号的行内。错误一般涉及单个词;每行只出现一个错误。要求修改的单词既有功能词(如介词、冠词等),也有实义词(动词、名词等)。错误既涉及句内也涉及句际。?校对与改错部分的测试目的是检查学生在实际语境中灵活运用语言的能力。该项目考查学生的语法和词汇知识,但更侧重评估学生的综合语言能力。校对改错部分要求学生在15分钟内找出10个错误,并根据要求用三种方法之中的一种改正错误。?

这一部分要求考生掌握三种知识:?

  

1.语法知识

  

众所周知,英语语言能力包括众多因素,其中之一是语法知识。没有系统的语法知识,学习者就很难全面、准确地以口头或书面的形式表达思维或意念。对于把英语作为外语的学生来说,语法知识的掌握尤为重要,因为它有助于提高语言的准确性、逻辑性。鉴于此,校对改错项目的一个测试点是检验高年级学生语法知识的掌握程度及其运用能力。一般地说,该项目中要求改正的错误里包括一些语法错误。例如:?

定语从句(1996年第三题),?

    情态动词(1997年第一题),?

    冠词(1997年第九题),?

    介词(1998年第四题),?

    反身代词(1998年第六题),等等。

校对改错项目要求学生运用已学过的语法知识,来判断句子的正误,找出语病,并作修正。

这里要强调的一点是,八级考试的这个项目不是孤立地测试学生的语法知识;它更偏重学生

运用语法知识的能力,即怎样把书本知识转化成实际能力。因此,对于学生来说,在平时一

要巩固已学过的语法知识,理清概念;二要注重提高运用语言知识解决具体问题的能力。?

2.词汇与搭配

  

校对改错项目的另一测试点是学生对常用词汇、搭配和用法的了解及运用。比如:?

外层空间应为outer space,而不是out space(1996年第 5题),?

    做动作应为 perform an act,而不是 make an act(1997年第 8题),?

    姿式应为posture,而不是post (1997年第10题),?

    站起来应为 get to their feet,而不是get on their feet(1998年第 4题),等等。

   词汇测试面涵盖各类词性的词,同时侧重考核它们的搭配与用法。归根结底,词汇测试部分主要是检验高年级学生在词汇方面是否达到英语专业高年级教学大纲所规定的要求。词汇的积累不是一朝一夕即可完成的,它需要在平时的学习过程中逐步积累,积少成多。因此

,对于学生来说,平时自己在学习中要注意扩大、巩固已有的词汇量,这点是非常重要的。

同时,在学习、掌握词汇的过程中,特别要注意提高自己灵活运用词汇的能力。?

  

3.篇章结构

在第1、第2点中我们提到校对改错项目的两个测试点:语法和词汇。同时我们也再三强调,这个项目尽管涉及以上两点的评估,但它不是简单、孤立地检验学生的语法词汇知识。

该项目仍着眼于语言的运用。也就是说,该项目旨在测试在具体语境或上下文中使用语法或词汇的能力。在校对改错这个特定的考试环境中,它所提供的具体语境或上下文是一篇200来字的短文。这篇短文由十来个在意义上相关联的句子构成;而需要修改的语病都出现在这些意义上相互关联的句中。鉴于这个特点,学生就要从篇章结构这个角度去判断句子的正误。也就是说,学生要跳出单句的框架,从语段(表达一相关层次意思的句子组合)的角度来进行判断。    ?

从语篇角度看,校对改错项目内的错误可大致分为两类:?

  1)句内错误:一般对此类错误的判断无须超越句子本身。如:?

996年试卷的第6题?

  water rising away from the depths of the earth during(6)_____?

  (删去away)?

  1999年试卷的第4题?

  hour of hunting yields in average about 100 edible calories(4)____

    (把in 改成 on)〖FK)〗?

  2)句际错误:对此类错误的判断要基于上下文之上,也就是牵涉到句与句之间的关系了。如:?

    1997年试卷的第5题?

    departure.This is what his body wants to do,therefore(5)____

    (把therefore 改成but)?

    1999年试卷的第5题?

    as an hour of gathering produces 240.(5)____

    (把as改成while)

对第二类错误的判断要求学生从篇章角度出发,把文中的句子看作表达一完整意思的

有机体。只有这样,学生才能找出错误所在。?

在历年的考试中,学生大都能判断出第一类错误,而对第二类错误(句际错误)的判断准确率就相对较低。历年试卷中难易度系数偏低的题目也大都为此类错误。因此,学生平时要加强对篇章的理解能力的训练,了解、熟悉篇章结构的特点:语段内句子之间的关系、语段之间的关系;它们的类别;各种不同关系的表示法,等等。只有在此基础上,学生才能灵活正确地使用语言知识,做到准确答题。??

  

三.阅读理解(Reading Comprehension)

  

题型分析与应试技巧

阅读理解是语言学习中最重要的基本技能之一,阅读是获取语言知识最直接、最有效的

方法,阅读能力则是衡量掌握语言综合能力的一项重要标志。学习阅读,学会阅读,提高英

语阅读能力,是最终掌握英语,提高整体英语水平的必由之路。英语专业八级考试中也设立

了阅读理解部分,而且阅读部分在整个考试中占相当大的比重,该部分的得分直接影响到整

个考试的成败,因此无论是教师还是考生都对此非常重视。八级考试中的阅读理解部分主要

是依据国家教委批准的《高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲》中对英语阅读教学内容和要求的

规定,运用科学的测试手段,检验英语专业学生对于高级英语阅读能力和技巧的掌握,从而

检查各有关院校对于大纲规定的教学内容和教学要求的完成和执行情况。?

应该说到了准备八级考试的时候,学生已经具备了相当的阅读经验和阅读能力,现在的关键是多做练习,大量阅读,通过阅读来提高阅读水平。如果还存在一些不良阅读习惯的话,比如用手指着读,默读时出声等等,就应毫不犹豫地痛下功夫去改正。下面列出了一些常用的阅读技巧,仅作提醒之用。希望考生能仔细对照自己的情况,尽快改掉不良习惯,以便提高自己的阅读效率。?

  

1.略读

略读(skimming)是常用的阅读方法之一,其主要特征是选择性地阅读。通常的阅读要求看到每一个词,每次注目看1-2个词。略读不需要看到每一个词,眼睛跳动的频率和幅度都有较大的提高,有时甚至从上一行跳到下一行。略读不可能使你对所读内容全部了解,但是你能大大地提高阅读速度,也能获得大量的信息。?

    略读的主要作用是了解文章的大意。经过略读之后,你对所读内容已经有了大致的了解,再仔细阅读,这时你的印象会更深刻,理解更透彻。?

    大部分读者不需要正规的训练和指导就可以进行略读。但是有意识地训练会大大地提高

你的略读速度和效率。进行略读训练的最简单的方法是强迫自己在规定的时间内读完某一篇文章,开始训练时,可以把略读速度定为平常阅读的5/4倍,以后逐步提高。略读的关键是增加眼跳的幅度,高度集中注意力,努力捕捉那些能引起注意或者你认为重要的内容。?

  

2.扫读

扫读(scanning)是以最快的速度扫视所读材料,在找到所需信息时才仔细阅读该项内容。如查找某个人名、地名、时间、地点等,也即在寻找特定信息、寻找具体事实、寻找答题所需内容时都用这种方法。?

  

3.研读

研读(study reading)就是仔细阅读,对文章有透彻深刻的理解。根据考题,运用上下文、逻辑关系、背景知识进行判断和推论。对难句的理解和翻译用得着这种方法。 ?

提高阅读速度的一个重要内容是扩大词汇量。其必要性表现在以下几个方面:?

1. 词汇量决定了你的阅读理解能力,词汇量越大,你阅读得越广,视野就越开阔,你阅读

理解的得分就越高。?

2. 有限的词汇量必然会影响你阅读理解能力的提高。生词的含义只有在上下文中才能完全

展现出来,并易于被识记、理解、掌握。换句话说,是上下文给某个词以特定含义,而这个

特定含义往往是字典无法提供的。有的人或许会说,我们从中学到大学英语词汇都是通过背

生词表来记的。但是这样说的读者忽视了很重要的一点:所学课文后面的词汇表都是为

课文服务的,而且,教师上课时对某些词或表达方式所举的实例,实质上是为它们设置上下文。不少教师鼓励学生背句子、段落、或整篇文章,都是出于同一目的,即要学生在上下文

中理解并掌握词汇和短语。?

3. 多读是扩大词汇量的最好的方法。不仅要读不同体裁的书和文章,而且要多接触不同题

材,才能适应考试的需要。?

下边我们谈谈怎样解决八级考试中的阅读问题:?

1. 找出段落的中心思想?

任何阅读材料都有主要意思,即大意(main idea)。文字材料的大意有不同的层次。一个比

较长的句子可以说很多事情,但一般只有一个大意,可以用几个词概括;一个段落包括很多

句子,但也只有一个大意,通常是段落的主题句(topic sentence)包含段落的大意。通常人

们说“大意”指的是整篇材料的中心思想。?

非小说体的阅读材料通常有比较明显的大意,其结构也比较清楚。文章的开头部分(introduction)会比较明确地指出文章的中心思想。文章主体部分的每一段也往往有主题句,通常在段首或段尾。有些文章的结尾还会对全文作一个总的概括。?

  

2. 如何对待阅读中的词汇问题?

阅读过程中不可避免地要遇到生词。大纲中规定允许有3%的生词,也就是说2000个词中允许有60个左右的生词,但一般不会有这么多的生词。有的人一遇到生词就停下来查字典,有的则读完一两页后查字典,有的人则完全不管生词。其实阅读中遇到生词只要不影响你对篇章主要意思的理解,一般应该继续往下读。如果生词的确影响你对内容的理解,查字典当然是一种办法,但很不方便,而且频繁地查字典不仅影响阅读速度,而且影响对文章内容的整体理解。所以在平时阅读时,遇生词最好的方法是通过上下文猜测。以下几条建议可帮助你猜测词义:?

(1)看看上下文中有没有生词的另一种说法,即找同义词。有时上下文会对一个生词作解

释,或者提供一些暗示。?

(2)看看生词在文章中的词性,即看这个词是名词、动词、形容词、副词或其他词类。另

外再看看这个词在文中与哪些词搭配使用,再根据自己的其他知识,就可以进行正确的猜测。(3)分析生词的构成,尤其是词的前缀和后缀。英语中很多词都是加前缀或后缀变来的。比如你认识这两个词write和similar,根据前缀re-和后缀-ity的含义,你就可以准确地

猜出rewrite和similarity这两个词的意思。?

(4)看看同一生词是否在上下文的其他地方出现,把两处的语境相比较,也许能更加准确

地猜出词义。?

(5)充分利用你关于所阅读的内容已有的知识。?

    为了巩固阅读过程中的生词,在读完一篇后,你可以把本篇中最重要的生词查一下字典,准确地了解该生词在文中的意思。因为我们训练的篇章都是大纲规定的题材,在真题中也

可能会遇到这方面的文章,甚至单词。?

  

3. 推论出段落的隐含意思?

有时,为了某种目的,作者往往不直接说出某一意思,而是含蓄地表达。这种隐含的意思有时是篇章的主要意思。所以阅读短文经常需要推论(making inference)。有时一句话的含义需要推论,有时整个篇章的含义需要推论。以下几条建议可以帮助你进行推论:?

(1)结合作者的思想观点、写作背景进行推论。?

(2)寻找作者直接陈述的诸多事件之间的联系。?

(3)仔细体会某些重要词的含蓄意义及其感情色彩。比如politician和statesman的意思都是“政治家”,但前者有贬义的色彩,即“政客”,后者则没有。?

(4)从作者的语气、语调、措辞等文体特征,读出作者的“言外之意”(reading beyond the lines)。?

(5)得出某一推断后,尽量从上下文中寻找证据。?

(6)充分利用自己已有的各方面的知识,把文章中所述的事情和自己的阅历或熟悉的事情

联系起来考虑。?

  

4. 预测下文内容?

预测下文内容也是提高阅读效率的重要手段。预测与猜测不同。猜测是对自己没有把握的文字意思的假设,预测则是根据已掌握的信息假想下文将会发生什么事情。预测之所以能够提高阅读效率,是因为它使你产生某种“期待”(expectations)。带着这种期待去读下文,你会努力为你的假想寻找证据,你的注意力将更加集中在文中的重要内容上。?

当然,预测也不是随意的,必须根据已经发生的事情或已了解的内容加上你自己的一般常识进行符合逻辑的预测。当你继续阅读下文时,你的预测要么被肯定,要么被否定。无论是肯定还是否定,都会加深你对原文的理解。以下是几条建议:?

(1)如果你对段落的主题思想已有初步的了解,想一想关于这一主题通常要描写哪些方面

的事情,这些事情在本文中会发生吗??

(2)运用你的英语语言知识及语言在具体语境中的习惯用法,预测文章将要写什么。?

以上的介绍没有特别将正常阅读和快速阅读分开,是因为无论阅读哪一部分的试题,都会用

到诸如 scanning、skimming的方法,但是由于八级阅读分为正常阅读和快速阅读两部分,有必要提醒考生,两者所给的时间是不同的。通常,正常阅读是四至五篇,答十五题。快速阅读是六至七篇,答十题,而后者的时间只有十分钟。所以,我们决不能在一篇上花太多的时间,只能采用跳读或寻读的方法来尽快获取信息,每篇文章,先读试题和选项,然后再有的放矢地进行阅读。 做题时,如果遇到有些题解不了,或是文章中某几句看不懂的情况,应该暂时放弃,先做其他题或继续阅读其他部分。在做完其他试题后,有时间,再来做这些没有把握的试题。千万不能为了一道题或一段文字而停滞不前。及时丢卒保车,才能保证总体成绩。?

阅读能力的提高不是靠短时间的突击就能提高的,需要我们持之以恒,长期进行正确的操练。英语专业八级考试是科学的语言测试,具有相当的信度和效度,靠投机取巧是不可能取得好成绩的,所以,我们衷心希望考生们能通过训练,真正地提高自己的语言能力,在八级考试中取得好的成绩。??

  

四.翻译(Translation)

题型分析与应试技巧

英语专业八级考试中的汉译英试题是对学生综合应用语言能力的一个测试。它既是对学生汉语水平的测试,又是对英语专业学生四年专业学习之后综合应用英语能力的检测。实践证明,我们的学生在四年的博亿堂娱乐官网过程中,忽略了对汉语的学习,因而在对汉语词语和句子的理解过程中出现了一些可笑的问题;同时,汉译英测试也反映出学生在用英语表达过程中,由于母语干扰或其它方面原因,也有很多典型的错误。这里我们仅从理解和表达两个角度,分析英语专业八级考试汉译英常见的一些问题,并通过分析这些问题,指出英语专业本科阶段汉译英教学中,加强学生基本功是该课程的一个核心任务。 ?

一般认为,理解汉语对于汉语是母语的中国学生来说,不应该构成什么问题;翻译过程的第二阶段,即表达阶段,才是问题出现比较多的地方。但是,在我们的学生中,的确存在着因为汉语功底不扎实而造成错误理解的问题。 这种错误主要出现在对一些不能够从字面上推测意义的习语上,例如部分学生对“寒暄”、 “破天荒”、 “干脆”等词语会产生错误的理解。我们有的同学将“寒暄”译成了“coldly talk for a while”,这说明习语的理解对于汉语功底不深厚、光顾着学习外语却忽视母语学习的外语专业学生来说的确是一个很突出的问题。 ?其次,学生还会出现断句的错误。由于汉语语言的习惯,汉语句子在断句问题上并不严格,因此对句子的停顿很多情况下完全取决于读者的语感。学生对此往往认识并不充分,不敢果断断句,以为原文中的一个长句一定要用英语的一个长句来表达,因而出现跟原文风格不一致的译文,甚至在组织译文语言的时候出现很多语法错误。当然,汉语功底的欠缺、语感的薄弱往往也会造成错误的断句,从而导致错误的翻译。例如,2000年八级考试中,第一句话是“世界上第一代博物馆属于自然博物馆,它是通过化石、标本等向人们介绍地球和各种生物的演化历史”。很多同学用which这个关系代词来形成了一个结构很复杂的主从复合句,但是在组织这个句子时出现很多错误,造成修饰关系不明的情况。如果我们果断断句,翻译成: ?

The world’s first generation museums are museums of natural history. They introduce to the ?people? with fossils and specimens the evolution of the earth and various living organism on it. 用这样两个简单句来处理,就可以避免语法错误,而且可以使

句子语义鲜明。 ?

此外,断句的错误还表现在词组间关系的断定上,比如,“科学知识”和“科学技术”,后者“科学”和“技术”之间是一种并列关系。这种修饰和并列关系在汉语中并没有形式上的分别,这种关系是一种意合关系,需要读者发挥自己的判断力和语感。很多同学把这两个短语分别译成了“science and knowledge”和“scientific technology”,由此可见我们在理解上还存在问题,学生们的汉语功底还不够深厚。 ?

  另外,对原文的理解还需要结合一定的背景知识,例如95年八级考试汉译英试题中提“奥

斯汀”这位作家,如果我们不熟悉这位作家,我们就可能连她的姓氏如何拼写也不知道。再

比如说,“我的导师是亚裔人”(1998年八级考试),不能简单地翻译成“My tutor is an As

ian”,因为所谓“亚裔”,是指亚洲的血缘,但并没明确国籍,根据上下文,却应该是美国国籍,因此这句话应该翻译为“My tutor is an Asian American.”,同样的道理,在同一篇文章中出现的“除有一名来自德国外,其余5位均是亚裔学生”也应该处理成?

“...except one of German origin, the rest five were all of Asian origin”。?

1999年八级考试试题中也出现了类似的句子“现今180万温哥华居民中,有一半不是本地

出生的,每4个居民中就有一个是亚洲人。25万华人对温哥华的经济转型起着决定性的作用”也应该根据以上的理由翻译为?

“Of the present 1.8 million residents Vancouver, half are not native, and one in

every four is of Asian origin. The 250,000 Chinese have been playing a decisive role

in the economic transformation of Vacouver.”?

由此看来,缺乏一定的背景知识,我们就不可能把这些句子处理正确。 ?

对于政论文章的翻译来说,一定政治意识的缺乏会造成错误的理解和表达。例如,“振兴”、

“统一”等,考虑到中国的历史,我们应该将它们分别理解和表达为“revitalization”或“rej

uvenation”和“reunification”。再例如“个体户”、“国营企业”、“三资企业”、“计划生育”

等概念,要求翻译时必须准确理解原意,然后在译文中作适当的表达,因而需要同学们熟

悉官方的翻译法。从这个意义上说,政论翻译,尤其在译名问题上,涉及到继承传统译名的

情况比较多,因此我们应该多读一些国内的外文刊物,如《中国日报》、《北京周报》、《

人民日报》(海外英文版)等,增强政治意识,统一翻译口径,这样才能够把汉译英做好。

?

总之,英语专业八级的翻译考试对译文的要求是忠实原文和语言通顺。翻译的功能是将原有的文字资料

转换成另一种语言,从而使读者用其熟悉的语言了解原本用另一种语言表述的信息。鉴于此,衡量译文的一个重要标准就是看其所转换的信息是否准确,是否忠实于原文。译者对原文

的把握、理解是关键所在。译者要对原文的思想、语气、风格有透彻的理解和准确的把握。

如果在这方面出现偏差,译文就会与原文有出入,也就很难做到忠实于原文。?

质量高的译文除了忠实于原文外,在语言上也要力求做到通顺。具体地说,就是所译语言要符合规范,行文自然、流畅,不带有过多生硬翻译的痕迹。就英译汉而言,译文应该断句恰当,句式正确,选词妥贴,段与段、句与句之间呼应自然,有一定文采。对于汉译英来说,要求译文的句式处理恰当,选词妥贴,英语比较地道。在八级翻译考试里,语言通顺对汉译英项目来说尤为重要。译文英语不地道,不仅会失去原文的文体风格,而且还会误转原意。??

  

五.写作测试(Writing)

题型分析与应试技巧

  

写作项目是全国高校英语专业八级考试五大项目之一,它的分值占总分的20%,考试时间为60分钟。该项目要求考生在规定的时间内根据提示写出300字左右的文章。文章力求做到观点清楚、例证充分、结构严谨、层次清楚、合乎逻辑、语言得体、无重大语法

错误。?要想写好一篇文章,考生应该注意以下几点:?

1.审题

在写作考试中要写出符合题目要求,高质量的作文,第一步是审题。所谓审题,就是通过阅读写作题目及相关信息或要求,正确领会题目的含义,了解题目要求,为构思合乎具体写作要求的文章框架打下基础。?

数年来八级写作项目已形成自身的特色。这个特色就是,该项目内的几个部分(观点、情景、标题、写作要求)具有内在的联系,从而构成一个整体。因此,审题就意味着不是仅仅浏览一个标题,而是要兼顾其它部分。只有这样,学生才能真正明确写作目的,领会写作要求。?

以1997年的八级考试写作项目为例。该年的标题是 SOWING THE SEEDS,NURTURING GROWTH AND HARVESTING THE REWARDS。如果我们孤立地看题目的话,就很难领会该篇作文的具体要求和目的。但是,一旦我们把标题与前面的情景与观点部分联系起来,这个标题的含义就变得清晰了:它要求学生用标题所含的耕作过程来比拟获得大学学业成就的过程。同时,对具体语篇模式的要求(即ANALOGY)也显示在这部分中间。至于对作文修辞框架的要求,则出现在标题下面的一段文字中。?

总而言之,提高审题的准确性有利于学生理解题目含义,了解写作要求,进而有针对性地构思作文内容、布局等。?然而,在历年写作阅卷中我们发现,审题有误仍是学生经常犯的错误之一。归纳起来有以下几点:

1)不熟悉八级写作的设计特点,以为只看标题即可着手写作。这常常导致在文章内容上出现严重偏差。

2)对情景观点部分的理解一知半解,未经仔细斟酌就提笔写作文。这往往会造成学生采用错误的语篇模式。

3)忽略写作项目中对作文修辞框架的提示。这容易使得作文思路或结构混乱或失衡。?

  

2.行文的统一性和连贯性

一篇优秀的作文应该具有以下两个特点。就八级写作项目而言,这主要体现在作文的内容和框架上。按照写作要求,一篇合格的作文由三个部分组成。第一部分包括作者的论点(THESIS STATEMENT)。论点应明确、清楚。第二部分是作文的主体。这部分的要求是通过恰当、合适的语篇模式(如:CAUSE AND EFFECT,COMPARISON AND CONTRAST,等等)来论证前面提出的论点。论证的过程要做到结构严谨、层次分明、合乎逻辑。要做到结构严谨,就需要学生在写作中抓住中心,并围绕中心展开讨论。结构严谨的作文同时也应是层次分明的作文。为了使论证过程具有说服力,作文应采用一种层次结构。

所谓层次结构指构成语篇的句子或者各段之间在逻辑意义上存在着一种主从关系,它们或者是解释关系,或者是因果关系,或者是总分关系。书卷语体通常属于这类结构,即一个语篇往往由不同层次的语段构成。此外,作文应有逻辑性,文中观点的阐述要合乎情理,观点之间的衔接要自然、顺畅。第三部分为作文的结尾。一篇思想内容完整的作文离不开一个好的结尾。一般来说,结尾部分的内容应为前面部分的总结。因此,这部分应与前面部分保持论点上的一致性和统一性。结尾部分忌讳的是牛头不对马嘴,前后没有连贯性,因而破坏作文的完整性。?

  

3.语言的规范性和准确性

作文的思想内容都必须通过语言形式来表达。八级作文要求语言得体、通顺,无重大语法错误。如果作文句不成句,用词不当,语法错误连篇,就很难将作者的意图表达清楚。?

但是,历年来的写作项目反映出学生在作文的统一性、连贯性和语言的规范性方面还普遍存

在一些问题。概括起来有以下几点:?

l)  作文中的论点未展开。这主要表现为没有按照要求在第一部分中阐明观点,而是东拉西扯,写了与题目有关或无关的细节或现象。比如在以IN SUPPORT OF DORMITORY POLICIES为题的作文中,一些学生不是开门见山地点明主题思想,而是列举了一些寝室里的情况或评论一些不良现象。最后由于篇幅有限,就在结束时提一句寝室制度就草草收尾。?

2)  作文结构不严谨,段落没有主题句,且句际段落关系不明显。这种现象在考生的作文中带有一定的普遍性。有些学生在写作时没有理清思路,按照一定的逻辑框架写,而是想到什么就写什么,因此文章显得松散。?

3)  作文首尾不一致。作文开头与结尾部分内容衔接不上,或自相矛盾。?

4)  作文缺乏连贯性(COHERENCE)。在对历年考生作文的分析中,我们发现以下几个现象:A. 差的作文中简单句多,而好的作文中则少;?

B. 差的作文中从句和连词出现的频率大大低于好的作文;?

C. 差的作文中各种照应的使用低于好的作文;?

D. 差的作文中关键词和同义/近义词出现的频率低于好的作文。?

以上部分简单地讨论了八级写作项目的要求、预期达到的标准以及学生作文中反映出来的

一些带有共性的问题。在结束之前,我们就如何提高写作能力谈几点看法:?

1、写作能力的培养要从最基本的做起,一步一个脚印,扎实地进行基本功训练。?

2、就八级写作项目而言,要提高驾驭文章整体思路的能力就要加强逻辑思维训练,通过各类写作手法的操练来提高这方面的能力。此外,要提高语言的准确性,学会使用各种语篇纽带,如 LOGICAL、GRAMMATICAL、SEMANTIC CONNECTORS,使作文思路清晰,论点鲜明,例证充分,语言得体,真正达到写作的要求。