There is a right way to read a book for pleasure, and a right way to read a book for learning. You can read a book for pleasure one time through and be just fine. You’ll get all you need out of that one reading—which is pleasure. 对于以娱乐为目的的阅读和以学习为目的的阅读,都有各自适合的阅读方法。你可以放松地读一本书,并且你会从书本中享受阅读的快乐。 However, it is harmful to assume that you should approach academic reading the same way. In order to read and comprehend a book or article for school, you need to be much more intentional and strategic. That is, if you want to earn a good grade! 然而,对于学习为目的的阅读,这样的方式却是行不通的。学习中,为了阅读并且理解一本学习用的书或者文章,你需要更有意识更有策略。也就是说,如果想得到一个好成绩,就需要这样做。 Understand genres and themes. 理解分类和主题。 In most reading tests, the student is asked to read a passage and predict what might happen next. Prediction is a common reading comprehension strategy. The purpose for this strategy is to make sure you’re able to infer information from the clues in the text. 在许多阅读测试中,要求学生阅读文章并且预测接下来会发生什么。预测是一种常见的阅读理解策略,其目的就是确定你是否可以根据文章中的线索推测接下来的事情。 It is important to know something about the type of text you're reading, whether it is a nonfiction or a work of fiction. Understanding the genre of a book helps you make predictions about the action--which helps you comprehend the action. 了解文章的类型是非常重要的,不管是非小说作品还是小说作品。了解文章的类型可以帮助你预测接下来的情形,也帮助你理解情境。 Read with tools. 借助工具阅读 Any time you read to learn (and not for pleasure), you should use active reading skills. There are good tools to use as you read, and there are tools that are not so good to use. 在学习式阅读中(不是娱乐阅读),你应该使用有效的阅读技巧。在阅读时有好的工具,也有一些不如意的工具。 A pencil is a good tool. You can use a pencil to make annotations in the margins of your text without doing any permanent damage to the text. 铅笔是一种好工具,你可以使用铅笔在边缘处做注释,并且不会给书本造成永久的损害。 Another good tool is a pack of sticky notes. Use your notes to jot down thoughts, impressions, predictions, and questions as you read. 另外一个好工具是一包便利贴。在阅读时使用便利贴简略记下你的想法、感受、预测和问题。 A highlighter, on the other hand, can be a really bad tool. Not only do you create some serious damage when you highlight a book, you also give yourself the false impression that you have accomplished anything significant by doing so. 另一方面,记号笔可能会是一种糟糕的工具,不仅仅会对书本造成严重的损害,还会带给自己一种已经完成了一些重要任务的假象(可能实际上并没有)。 The only thing you accomplish by highlighting is marking passages that you may want to read again. But if a passage impresses you enough to highlight it, you must indicate why it impresses you. Otherwise, you will go back to read isolated sentences and try to remember why they were important. 记下一些你想要重新阅读的段落是唯一一件可以通过标记号来有效完成的事。但是如果一段文字令你印象非常深刻想要标记出来,你必须写明这段话为什么吸引你。否则,你可能会将注意力返回到其中某个单句上,或者花费时间来回忆这些句子为什么重要。 Work the vocabulary skills. 运用词汇技巧 It's a no-brainer that you should take the time to identify and look up new and unfamiliar words as you read. But it's important to make a log book of those new words, and revisit them long after you've finished reading that book. 在阅读中,查找并确认新的和不熟悉的词汇是件容易的事情,但准备一个本子来记录这些新词,并且在读完书本后回顾这些新词也是非常重要的。 The more we study a subject, the more it sinks in. Be sure to keep a log book of new words and visit it often! 我们对一门课学习得越多,吸收的知识就越多。一定要准备一个笔记本来记录新词并常常温习。 Analyze the title (and subtitles). 分析标题(和副标题) The title is often the last thing to be adjusted once a writer has finished writing.Writers edit the text and identify themes, make predictions, and make notations galore. 题目通常是作者写完文章后需要调整的部分。作者编辑文字并且确认主题,作出预测,并做出许多注释。 Many writers are surprised by the twists and turns that come from the creative process. 许多作者都会对创作过程的曲折和转变感到惊讶。 This is why, once a text is completed, the writer may reflect on the true message or purpose as a final step and come up with a new title. This means you can use the title as a clue to help you understand the message or purpose of your text. 这也是为什么文章完成后,作者会把回顾传达的真实信息和目标作为最后一步,同时想一个新的标题。这意味着你可以以标题作为线索来帮助你理解文章的内容和目的。