1.pngCan groups of people "remember" something that didn't happen?一群人在一起能“记住”没发生过的事?来自新学院大学心理学教授William Hirst的回答:WE KNOW THAT IT’S RELATIVELY EASY to implant memories. We also know that once a memory has been implanted the process continues and there are studies on what’s called updating. Take the case of false news about the Iraq War early on which was discovered to be false; in one study if you were in Germany or Australia you were likely to update the information, but if you were American you weren’t as likely to update the information. So for some people, even if you were told a fact was wrong, you would still remember the previous incorrect fact. This suggests that memory is schema consistent, so if something fits into the way you think things should be it, you don’t easily revise the memory once it’s been formed.我们都知道植入记忆很容易,而且一旦一段记忆被植入了,这一过程还会继续,有过关于记忆更新的研究。以伊拉克战争虚假新闻为例,这一新闻很早就被发现有误。一项研究发现身在德国或澳大利亚有可能更新信息,但美国人就不会更新信息,所以对于一些人来说,即使被告知一件事是错的,仍会记住此前的错误事实。这表明记忆模式是不变的,所以如果某件事符合你的预计,记忆一旦形成就不容易更改。A schema is sort your organized representation of the world. When something fits into your view of the world, you’re primed to absorb that information. If it’s mildly inconsistent, it sort of stands and becomes memorable. But if it’s too inconsistent then it slips away. In terms of groups talking together, studies suggest that false memories are more likely to arise in a group discussion than individually because there is more chance of somebody offering a false memory which can then be implanted. However, if somebody in the group says “no that’s not true”, that will mitigate the influence. But for groups with a strong shared interest, like Trump supporters, they’re less likely to dispute one another and therefore it’s less likely for their memories to be updated.模式就是你对世界有条理的看法。某件事符合你的世界观时,你就容易接受这一信息。如果有一点点不符,你就有些抗拒,记忆会变得难忘。但如果相去甚远,这个记忆就会消失。再说说群体聊天,研究表明群体聊天比个人谈话更容易产生错误记忆,因为你更可能被灌输别人提供的错误记忆。然而,如果人群中有人说:“不,那不是真的”,你所受的影响会降低。但对于有着强烈共同兴趣的群体而言,比如特朗普的支持者们,他们就不太可能怀疑彼此,因此他们不大可能会更新记忆。From all the evidence, memory is not like a tape recorder. There’s not really a “truth” to memory. What Frederic Bartlett said is that memory is a continuous reconstruction. And what guides your reconstruction? Your view of the world. Your current view of the world, your current attitudes, allow you to reconstruct your own past to be consistent with your present self. We’re constantly reshaping our memory to essentially reinforce our present attitudes.所有证据表明记忆并非录音机,记忆中没有真正的“事实”,Frederic Bartlett(英国心理学家)说过记忆是反复重建的过程,那是什么在引导这一过程呢?是你的世界观。你现在的世界观和现在的态度使你重建以往的记忆以适应现在的自己。我们不断重塑记忆从本质上来坚定自己目前的态度。Also, every time we remember things, we’re selective. Our memories are to a large extent determined by our interactions with others, and by others I mean other people, media, and other external factors. Our memory is not only our own, but also that of all we interact with.而且每次我们记忆时都是有选择性的。我们的记忆在很大程度上是由我们与其他事物的互动决定的,其他事物指的是其他人、媒体和其他外在因素。我们的记忆不仅包括自己的,还包括所有和我们互动的人的记忆。