爱思英语编者按:《朱子家训》是“经典诵读口袋书”的一种,又名《朱子治家格言》、《朱柏庐治家格言》,是以家庭道德为主的启蒙教材。《朱子家训》仅522字,精辟地阐明了修身治家之道是一篇家教名著。其中,许多内容继承了中国传统文化的优秀特点,比如尊敬师长,勤俭持家,邻里和睦等,在今天仍然有现实意义,当然其中封建性的糟粕如对女性的某种偏见、迷信报应、自得守旧等是那个时代的历史局限,我们是不能苛求于前人的。 《朱子家训》英译 黎明即起,洒扫庭除,要内外整洁;既昏便息,关锁门户,必亲自检点。 Arise at peep of day, sprinkle water and sweep the courtyard and the steps; the inside and outside must be orderly and clean. Rest when it is dark, personally check the closing and locking of doors and windows. 一粥一饭,当思来处不易;半丝半缕,恒念物力维艰。 Whether broth or cooked rice, remember it is not easy to come by, for half a piece of silk or cotton thread, think of the difficulty in production. 宜未雨而绸缪,毋临渴而掘井。 Prepare for rainy days; do not wait for thirst before you dig a well. 自奉必须俭约,宴客切勿流连。 Live frugally and do not give protracted parties. 器具质而洁,瓦缶胜金玉;饭食约而精,园蔬逾珍馐。 If utensils be plain and clean, pottery is better than gold and jade. If there is moderation and choice in food, vegetables are better than costly delicacies. 勿营华屋,勿谋良田。 Do not build luxurious houses; do not scheme for rich land. 三姑六婆,实淫盗之媒;婢美妾娇,非闺房之福。 The three ku and six po are evil go-betweens; pretty maids and lovely concubines are not a blessing to the boudoir. 奴仆勿用俊美,妻妾切忌艳妆。 Do not use the smart and handsome for servants; wives and concubines should not wear seductive makeup. 祖宗虽远,祭祀不可不诚;子孙虽愚,经书不可不读。 Be sincere and respectful in offering sacrifices though the ancestors may be distant; the classics must be taught though the descendants may be stupid. 居身务期质朴,教子要有义方。 Conduct yourself with frugality and simplicity; teach your sons with uprightness. 莫贪意外之财,勿饮过量之酒。
 
Do not be greedy for unexpected wealth, do not drink beyond capacity.
 
与肩挑贸易,勿占便宜;见贫苦亲邻,须多温恤。
 
Do not take advantage of the hawkers; help poor relatives and neighbours.
 
刻薄成家,理无久享;伦常乖舛,立见消亡。
 
According to reason, there can be no long enjoyment of wealth acquired through meanness. When human relationships are distorted, there will be immediate destruction.
 
兄弟叔侄,须分多润寡;长幼内外,宜法肃辞严。
 
Among brothers, uncles and nephews, distribute your surplus to the needy. Adults and youngsters, at home and abroad, must respect rules and be serious in speech.
 
听妇言,乖骨肉,岂是丈夫?重资财,薄父母,不成人子。
 
To believe the wife’s words and estrange your flesh and blood is not worthy of a man. To value wealth and neglect the parents is not worthy of a son.
 
嫁女择佳婿,毋索重聘;娶媳求淑女,勿计厚奁。
 
In marrying off a daughter, select a good son-in-law: do not demand a big cash down. In taking a daughter-in-law look for a virtuous maiden: do not reckon on a big dowry.
 
见富贵而生谄容者最可耻;遇贫穷而作骄态者贱莫甚。
 
It is most disgraceful to become sycophantic on seeing the rich and the powerful; it is lowly beyond words to assume haughty airs towards the poor.
 
居家戒争讼,讼则终凶;处世戒多言,言多必失。
 
Avoid litigation; it can only bring calamity in the end. Avoid too much talk in life; much talk leads to errors.
 
勿恃势力而凌逼孤寡,毋贪口腹而恣杀牲禽。
 
Use not your power to oppress orphans and widows; do not slaughter heedlessly to gratify your mouth and stomach.
 
乖僻自是,悔误必多;颓惰自甘,家道难成。
 
Perversity and conceit bring many regrets; laziness and complacency do not build a family.
 
狎昵恶少,久必受其累;屈志老成,急则可相依。
 
Association with evil youths sooner or later gets you into trouble with them; to be humble before the elderly and the experience brings help in time of need.
 
轻听发言,安知非人之谮诉?当忍耐三思;因事相争,焉知非我之不是?须平心暗想。
 
Is it not possible that stories you hear about people may just be slander? Be patient and think thrice. Is it not possible that I may be wrong in a dispute about things? Keep calm and ponder deeply.
施惠无念,受恩莫忘。
 
Think not of the good turns done to others; forget not the kindness received.
 
凡事当留余地,得意不宜再往。
 
In all matters, leave a margin for error or mishap, do not overdo your realized ambition.
 
人有喜庆,不可生妒忌心;人有祸患,不可生喜幸心。
 
Do not be jealous of others in happy festivity; do not rejoice over others’ misfortune.
 
善欲人见,不是真善;恶恐人知,便是大恶。
 
To do good for others to see is not true goodness; to do evil in fear of others knowing is indeed grievous evil.
 
见色而起淫心,报在妻女;匿怨而用暗箭,祸延子孙。
 
To have adulterous desire when seeing a beauty is to bring retribution upon your wife and daughter. To keep a grudge and plot harm secretly is to bring disaster upon your descendants.
 
家门和顺,虽饔餐不继,亦有余欢;国课早完,即囊橐无余,自得至乐。
 
If there is peace and harmony in the family, there will be surplus of joy even though meals are few and far between. If taxes are paid promptly there will be happiness even though there be no savings.
 
读书志在圣贤,非徒科第;为官心存君国,岂计身家!
 
In learning, aim at the sages; as an official, be loyal to sovereign and country.
 
守分安命,顺时听天;为人若此,庶乎近焉。
 
Keep to your station in life and be content with your lot; accept the times and obey Heaven. Be like this and you will be near the ideal.
 
(李绍茂 译)