当地时间8日下午,美国总统特朗普正式宣布美国将单方面退出2015年由伊朗与伊核问题六国签订的伊朗核问题全面协议。 又退群!特朗普宣布退出伊核协议 US President Donald Trump holds up a proclamation declaring his intention to withdraw from the JCPOA Iran nuclear agreement after signing it in the Diplomatic Room at the White House in Washington, US, May 8, 2018. [Photo/Agencies] 据美国有线电视新闻网(CNN)报道: US President Donald Trump announced Tuesday he is quitting the Iran nuclear deal, pitting him against the United States' Western allies and leaving the future of Tehran's nuclear ambitions in question. 美国总统特朗普8日宣布将退出伊朗核协议,此举使美国公然与其西方盟友针锋相对,也令伊朗未来的核计划充满不确定性。 【何为伊核协议?】 当地时间2015年7月14日,伊核问题六国、欧盟和伊朗在奥地利维也纳达成伊核问题全面协议。 全称: 联合全面行动计划(Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action) 参与国家:伊朗与国际调停“六方”(俄、美、英、中、法、德) 签署时间:2015年7月14日 签署地点:维也纳 生效时间:2016年1月16日 要点: 1. Iran has agreed to dismantle most of its nuclear program, guaranteeing they would not be able to make a bomb for at least one year, over the course of 10 years. 伊朗同意废除大部分核计划,确保在未来10年当中,伊朗没有能力在一年内制造出核弹。 2. Iran’s 19,000 installed centrifuges will have to be cut to no more than 6,104 for the next 10 years. The 13,000 decommissioned centrifuges will be sent to monitored storage by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 伊朗目前已安装的1.9万台离心机将被缩减至6104台以下。1.3万台拆解的离心机将被移送至由国际原子能机构监控的存放地点。 3. Iran has also agreed to reduce its stockpile of enriched uranium (the material needed to make a bomb) by 98 percent and agreed to halt further enrichment. That material would either be diluted or sold. 伊朗还同意将浓缩铀(制造核弹的材料)的储备减少98%,并中止铀浓缩项目。削减的浓缩铀将被稀释或者出售。 4.The heavy water nuclear reactor in Arak will be redesigned, preventing Iran from producing weapons grade plutonium there. Iran will ship the spent fuel from Arak and over the next 15 years Iran will not build any new heavy water reactors. 位于阿拉克的重水核子反应炉将被重新设计,以防止伊朗生产武器级别的钚。伊朗将运走阿拉克基地内的燃料,在未来15年内都不会再建造任何新的重水反应堆。 5. If Iran breaks its commitments, all sanctions could be quickly snapped back into place, according to the terms of the agreement. 谈判协议规定,如果伊朗不履行承诺,所有的制裁将迅速恢复。 在白宫发表的电视讲话中,特朗普称伊核协议是“已经腐烂了”的协议: "It is clear to me that we cannot prevent an Iranian nuclear bomb under the decaying and rotten structure of the current agreement." 很显然,在如今这个架子已经腐烂了的协议下,我们根本无法阻止伊朗拥有核武器。 "This was a horrible one-sided deal that should have never, ever been made. It didn't bring calm, it didn't bring peace, and it never will." 这是一个糟糕的单方面获益的协议,从一开始就不该被签订。它过去没有带来平静与和平,将来也永远不可能。 特朗普还表示,美国将重启对伊朗的制裁: “We will be instituting the highest level of economic sanction. Any nation that helps Iran in its quest for nuclear weapons could also be strongly sanctioned by the United States.” 我们将制定最严厉的经济制裁,任何帮助伊朗寻求核武器的国家也会遭到美国的严厉制裁。 他在签署重新制裁伊朗政权的总统备忘录前说,这一举措是要传达一个重要信息: “The United States no longer makes empty threats.” 美国不会再只做空洞的威胁。 作为回应,伊朗表示暂时会留在协议框架之内,但是已做好准备,如有必要,重新启动核武器的研究。 伊朗总统鲁哈尼(Hassan Rouhani)说: "I have ordered the Atomic Energy Organisation of Iran to be ready for action if needed, so that if necessary we can resume our enrichment on an industrial level without any limitations." 我已经命令伊朗原子能组织做好准备,如有必要,不设限制地重新开始我们工业级别的铀浓缩。 联合国秘书长古特雷斯(UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres)对此表示担忧,他说: "I am deeply concerned by today's announcement that the United States will be withdrawing from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and will begin reinstating US sanctions (against Iran)." 对于美国今天宣布退出《联合全面行动计划》并重启对伊朗制裁的决定,我深表担忧。 "I call on other JCPOA participants to abide fully by their respective commitments under the JCPOA and on all other (UN) member states to support this agreement." 我呼吁其他伊核协议参与方严格遵守各自的承诺,也希望联合国其他成员国支持该协议。 另一方面,特朗普的决定让美国的欧洲盟友们感到手足无措。 英、法、德三国领导人共同发布声明,对特朗普的决定表示“遗憾和担忧”(regret and concern),并宣布他们将继续遵守伊核协议。 不过,伊朗在中东的劲敌以色列就强烈赞同美国的决定。 Trump won strong backing from Saudi Arabia and Israel, whose leader, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, hailed him for a “historic move” and “courageous leadership.” 特朗普获得了沙特阿拉伯和以色列的全力支持。以色列总理内塔尼亚胡盛赞特朗普做了一个“历史性的举措”,彰显了“有胆识的领导力”。 【中方表态】 5月9日,外交部例行记者会上有记者就此问题提问:北京时间5月9日凌晨,美总统特朗普宣布美终止参与伊朗核问题全面协议,但伊朗称只要其他各方继续履行协议,伊朗仍将遵守协议。中方对此的立场是什么? 外交部发言人耿爽回答: 中方对美方所做决定表示遗憾。伊朗核问题全面协议是由六国、欧盟和伊朗共同谈判达成的多边协议,并经过安理会第2231号决议核可,所有各方都应当认真执行,维护全面协议的完整性和严肃性。这有利于维护国际核不扩散体系,促进中东地区和平与稳定,对通过政治手段解决热点问题也具有示范意义。 China regrets the decision made by the US side. The JCPOA is a multilateral agreement reached by the P5+1, the European Union and Iran through negotiations and endorsed by the UN Security Council Resolution 2231. All relevant parties should implement the JCPOA in good faith and ensure its integrity and sanctity. This will contribute to upholding the international non-proliferation regime and peace and stability in the Middle East and will play an exemplary role for the political settlement of hot-spot issues. 当前形势下,中方呼吁所有各方本着负责任态度,从长远和大局出发,坚持政治外交解决方向,妥善管控分歧,尽快回到继续执行全面协议的正确轨道上来。中方将本着客观、公正和负责任态度,同各方保持对话协商,继续致力于维护和执行全面协议。 Under the current circumstances, China calls on all relevant parties to assume a responsible attitude, bear in mind the long-term and overall picture, stay committed to the political and diplomatic solution, properly handle differences and come back as soon as possible to the right track of continuing with the implementation of the JCPOA. China will maintain dialogue and consultation with all relevant parties and stay committed to upholding and implementing the JCPOA in an objective, unbiased and responsible attitude.   【相关词汇】 伊朗核协议 Iran nuclear deal 铀浓缩 uranium enrichment 离心机 centrifuge 武器禁运 arms embargo 钚 plutonium 重水核子反应炉 heavy water nuclear reactor 参考来源:中国日报双语新闻 编辑:马文英 李雪晴 唐晓敏 左卓