1.pngThis is a kindergarten we designed in 2007. We made this kindergarten to be a circle. It’s a kind of endless circulation on top of the roof. If you are a parent, you know that kids love to keep making circles. This is how the rooftop looks.这是我们在2007年设计的一个幼儿园。我们把它建成了一个环形,在屋顶上面,是一个无尽的循环。如果你是一名家长,你就知道, 小孩儿们喜欢不停的转圈。那么这就是房顶的样子。And why did we design this? The principal of this kindergarten said, "No, I don’t want a handrail." I said, "It’s impossible." But he insisted: "How about having a net sticking out from the edge of the roof? So that it can catch the children falling off?" (Laughter) I said, "It’s impossible."为什么我们要把它设计成这样呢?这家幼儿园的园长说: "不,我不想要护栏。” 我说:“那不可能。” 但他坚持说:“那要不......就在屋顶边做一圈向外延伸的防护网?这样它就能接住跌落的小孩儿?“ (笑声) 我说:“那不可能。”And of course, the government official said, "Of course you have to have a handrail." But we could keep that idea around the trees. There are three trees popping through. And we were allowed to call this rope as a handrail. But of course, rope has nothing to do with them. They fall into the net. And you get more, and more, more. (Laughter) Sometimes 40 children are around a tree. The boy on the branch, he loves the tree so he is eating the tree.然后,当然,政府的官员告诉我: “当然,你必须得有护栏。” 但我们还是可以把那个防护网的想法在树上实现。那儿有三棵从屋顶穿出的树,我们被允许用绳索当作护栏。但是,当然, 绳索对小孩儿来说根本没用。他们会故意掉进去,然后更多人掉进去,还有更多,更多……(笑声) 有时会有40个小孩儿同时围着树一起玩儿,那个爬在树枝上的男孩儿,他很爱这棵树,一直在不停的啃树皮。And at the time of an event, they sit on the edge. It looks so nice from underneath. Monkeys in the zoo. (Laughter) Feeding time.当幼儿园里搞活动的时候,他们就坐在围栏的边缘(观看)。这画面从下面看起来很美,简直就是动物园里的猴子。 (笑声) 喂食时间到~And we made the roof as low as possible, because we wanted to see children on top of the roof, not only underneath the roof. And if the roof is too high, you see only the ceiling.我们把房顶尽量做得低矮,因为我们想让孩子们在屋顶上玩,而不是缩在屋檐下。如果房顶太高,你看到的就只有天花板了。And the leg washing place -- there are many kinds of water taps. You see with the flexible tubes, you want to spray water to your friends, and the shower, and the one in front is quite normal. But if you look at this, the boy is not washing his boots, he’s putting water into his boots.还有洗脚的地方——那儿有很多种水龙头。你可以看到,有弹性的软管… 让人忍不住想用它往朋友身上喷水玩,还有淋浴的喷头… 还有前面的这种…是很普通的水龙头。但是如果你仔细看,这小男孩其实并没在洗他的靴子,他是在往靴子里灌水……This kindergarten is completely open, most of the year. And there is no boundary between inside and outside. So it means basically this architecture is a roof. And also there is no boundary between classrooms. So there is no acoustic barrier at all. When you put many children in a quiet box, some of them get really nervous. But in this kindergarten, there is no reason they get nervous. Because there is no boundary.这家幼儿园完全是开放的,几乎整年都开放着。它的内部和外部之间,没有明确的界限。因此,这意味着,基本上,这个建筑,就只有一个屋顶。同样的,它的教室之间也没有界限,所以那里没有任何听觉上的阻碍。要知道,如果你把很多小孩放进一个安静的封闭空间,他们中的一些人会变得非常紧张。但在这个幼儿园里,他们没有任何理由去紧张,因为到处都没有界限。And the principal says if the boy in the corner doesn’t want to stay in the room, we let him go. He will come back eventually, because it’s a circle, it comes back.他们的园长说,如果角落里的那个男孩儿不想呆在教室里,我们就放他走。他最终会回来的,因为这是个圆,他会转回来的。But the point is, in that kind of occasion, usually children try to hide somewhere. But here, just they leave and come back. It’s a natural process.最关键的是,通常在这种情况下,小孩儿会试图藏在某个地方。但在这里,他们走掉之后,就只能绕一圈回来。这是个自然的过程。And secondly, we consider noise very important. You know that children sleep better in noise. They don’t sleep in a quiet space. And in this kindergarten, these children show amazing concentration in class. And you know, our kind grew up in the jungle with noise. They need noise. And you know, you can talk to your friends in a noisy bar. You are not supposed to be in silence.其次,我们认为,噪音是非常重要的。你得知道,小孩儿在噪音里睡得更香,他们是不会在安静的空间里睡着的。在这家幼儿园里,孩子们在课堂里表现出惊人的注意力。大家知道,我们人类原本就是在那种充满噪音的丛林里长大的。——他们需要噪音。你还能够在嘈杂的酒吧里跟朋友聊天,你本来就能够适应嘈杂的环境。And you know, these days we are trying to make everything under control. You know, it’s completely open. And you should know that we can go skiing in -20 degrees in winter. In summer you go swimming. The sand is 50 degrees. And also, you should know that you are waterproof. You never melt in rain. So, children are supposed to be outside. So that is how we should treat them.当今时代,我们一直在尝试要控制所有的事情。但在这里,它是完全开放的。你们也应该知道:我们能在零下二十度的冬天滑雪。夏天,你去游泳海边的沙子高达50摄氏度。我们就是这样适应环境的。而且我们人类是防水的,不可能因为一场雨就融化了。所以,我们认为小孩儿就该呆在室外。 这才是我们对待他们的正确方式。This is how they divide classrooms. They are supposed to help teachers. They don’t. (Laughter) I didn’t put him in. A classroom. And a washbasin. They talk to each other around the well. And there are always some trees in the classroom. A monkey trying to fish another monkey from above. (Laughter) Monkeys. (Laughter) And each classroom has at least one skylight. And this is where Santa Claus comes down at the time of Christmas.这是他们分隔教室的方式,他们本来应该帮助老师的。但…他们没有… (笑声)不是我把他放进去的……这就是教室了,还有洗手池。他们在水池边聊天。而且教室里总是有一些树的…… 一只猴子想要把另一只猴子钓上去。 (笑声) 看,猴子们。(笑声) 每个教室都至少有一个天窗。这样在圣诞节的时候,圣诞老人才有地方爬下来。This is the annex building, right next to that oval-shaped kindergarten. The building is only five meters tall with seven floors. And of course, the ceiling height is very low. So you have to consider safety. So, we put our children, a daughter and a son. They tried to go in. He hit his head. He’s okay. His skull is quite strong. He is resilient. It’s my son. (Laughter) And he is trying to see if it is safe to jump off. And then we put other children.这是幼儿园的附属建筑,就建在那个椭圆形幼儿园的旁边。这个建筑只有5米高,可是里面设计了7层的空间。当然,这导致它的天花板非常矮。因此我们不得不考虑安全问题。所以,我们放了两个孩子进去,一个女孩儿,一个男孩儿。他们努力地钻进去,他撞到头了,他没事,他的骨头很硬,他适应能力很强的。因为这是我儿子。 (笑声)他还在试着看能不能安全地跳下去,然后我们放了更多孩子进去。The traffic jam is awful in Tokyo, as you know. (Laughter) The driver in front, she needs to learn how to drive. Now these days, kids need a small dosage of danger. And in this kind of occasion, they learn to help each other. This is society. This is the kind of opportunity we are losing these days.东京的堵车太糟糕了,你懂的。 (笑声)前面那个司机,她还得好好学学开车。在这个年代,孩子们需要接触一些轻微的危险。因为在这种状况下,他们就会学会互相帮助。这就是社会,这些(教育)机会 正是我们如今逐渐丧失的。Now, this drawing is showing the movement of a boy between 9:10 and 9:30. And the circumference of this building is 183 meters. So it’s not exactly small at all. And this boy did 6,000 meters in the morning. But the surprise is yet to come. The children in this kindergarten do 4,000 meters on average. And these children have the highest athletic abilities among many kindergartens. The principal says, "I don’t train them. We leave them on top of the roof. Just like sheep." (Laughter) They keep running.现在看这幅图,它展现了一个男孩 在9:10到9:30之间的运动轨迹。这栋建筑的周长是183米。 真的已经不能算小了!所以这个男孩,一早上就运动了6000米。最令人惊讶的还不止这个。这家幼儿园里的孩子们平均运动距离是4000米。与大多数幼儿园相比, 这里的孩子有着最高的运动能力。园长说了: “我们不需要督促他们进行户外锻炼,把他们放到屋顶上就行,就像放羊一样。“ (笑声) 他们就会不停地跑啊跑。My point is don’t control them, don’t protect them too much, and they need to tumble sometimes. They need to get some injury. And that makes them learn how to live in this world. I think architecture is capable of changing this world, and people’s lives. And this is one of the attempts to change the lives of children.我的观念就是,不要去“控制”他们,也不要过多地“保护”他们 ——他们有时也需要摔倒,也需要受点伤。这样他们就会从中学到如何在这个世界上生存。我认为,建筑可以改变这个世界,可以改变人们的生活。这座幼儿园,就是其中一个尝试,它改变了孩子们的生活。Thank you very much.(Applause)非常感谢。(鼓掌)