1.pngThe first modern Briton had “dark to black” skin, groundbreaking new analysis of his 10,000-year-old remains has revealed.研究人员对一万年前的英国人的遗骸进行了全新的研究。分析结果显示,第一位近代英国人拥有“接近黑色的深色”皮肤。Britain's oldest complete skeleton, known as Cheddar Man, was unearthed more than a century ago in Gough's Cave in Somerset.英国最古老的完整骨架是100多年前在萨默赛特郡戈夫岛的洞穴中被发掘的,他又被称为切达人。But an unprecedented examination of his DNA, along with a facial reconstruction of the fossil, shows the young man would have had a darker complexion than previously thought, along with blue eyes and dark, curly hair.不过,研究人员对他的DNA进行了首次检测,同时对他的面部进行了复原,结果显示,这名年轻男子的肤色比此前预计的要深,而且他还有蓝色的眼睛和深色的卷发。Previous reconstructions of Cheddar Man, which were not based on DNA data, depicted him with a lighter skin tone.先前对切达人的复原并非基于DNA数据,当时的复原把他描绘成浅肤色的人种。Yet research by evolution and DNA specialists suggests the pigmentation associated with northern European ancestry is a more recent development.然而,进化和DNA专家的研究指出,与北欧祖先相关的色素沉着是近期才逐渐形成的。2.pngThe research and remodelling process was documented for Channel 4 programme The First Brit: Secrets of the 10,000 Year Old Man.这项研究和重塑的过程将在第四频道《第一个英国人:一万年前的秘密》节目中作记述性报道。Researchers Professor Ian Barnes and Dr Selina Brace extracted DNA data from bone powder by drilling a 2mm hole through the skull's inner ear bone.研究员伊恩·巴尔内斯教授和赛琳娜·布雷斯博士在颅骨的内耳骨上钻了一个2毫米的小孔,收集到一些骨粉,然后从中提取了DNA数据。They scanned the skull and a 3D model was produced by “paleo artists” Alfons and Adrie Kennis.他们扫描了这块颅骨,然后由“史前艺术家”阿尔方斯·肯尼斯和阿德里·肯尼斯为其制作了3D模型。The twins, who have created reconstructions for museums around the world, spent three months working on Cheddar Man.这对双胞胎为世界各地的博物馆制作复原模型,他们用了三个月的时间制作了切达人的模型。Cheddar Man, thought to have died in his twenties and have had a relatively good diet, lived in Britain when it was almost completely depopulated about 300 generations ago.据悉,这名切达人死于二十多岁,他有着相对良好的饮食,生活在300代人之前的英国,当时的人口几乎全部灭绝。Although previous populations had settled in Britain long before his arrival, they were wiped out before him and he marked the start of continuous habitation on the island.虽然在切达人到来之前就有人定居在英国,但在他之前那些人就灭绝了,切达人的到来标志着该岛屿开始迎来持续居住人口。Genetically, he belonged to a group of people known as the “Western Hunter-Gatherers”, Mesolithic-era individuals from Spain, Hungary and Luxembourg.从遗传学的角度讲,切达人属于中石器时代来自西班牙、匈牙利和卢森堡的“西方游猎采集部族”。His ancestors migrated to Europe from the Middle East after the Ice Age. Britain has been inhabited ever since and today about 10 per cent of White British people are descended from the group.他的祖先在冰河时代之后从中东移居至欧洲,自那以后就在英国定居下来。如今约10%的英国白人是该群体的后裔。Alfons said: “People define themselves by which country they’re from, and they assume that their ancestors were just like them. And then suddenly new research shows that we used to be a totally different people with a different genetic makeup.阿尔方斯表示:“人们通过所属国家来定义自己,而且他们认为自己的祖先就像他们一样。而新研究突然表明,我们(的祖先)过去是完全不同的人,还拥有不同的基因组成。”“People will be surprised, and maybe it will make immigrants feel a bit more involved in the story. And maybe it gets rid of the idea that you have to look a certain way to be from somewhere. We are all immigrants.”“人们会感到惊讶,它也许会使移民有更多的参与感。而且这也许会使你摆脱必须以某种方式来确定自己来自何处的想法。因为我们都是移民。”