雅思写作中,怎样坚持文章的连贯性?什么是文章的连贯性(coherence)?一个阶段不是乱七八糟的,而是奇妙的组合,语句的摆放次序合乎逻辑,从一个语句到另一个语句的过渡非常流通(smooth)并且天然,语法正确朗朗上口等等是都使得文章愈加流通,本文将为考生介绍一下雅思写作高分技巧:坚持连贯性和一致性,期望能对考生们在雅思写作中有所协助。连贯性包括意连和形连两个方面,前者指的是内涵的逻辑性,后者指的是运用变换词语。当然这两者常常是不可分割的。只有形连而没有意连,语句之间就没有内涵的有机的联络;反之,只有意连而没有形连,有时行文就不行流通。1.png1、意连阶段中语句的摆放应遵循必定的次第,不能想到什么就写什么。假如在着笔之前没有构思,边写边想,写写停停,那就写不出一气呵成的好文章来。下面介绍几种常见的摆放方式。A.按时刻先后摆放(chronological arrangement)We had a number of close calls that day. When we rose, it was obviously late and we had to hurry so as not to miss breakfast; we knew the dining room staff was strict about closing at nine o'clock. Then, when we had been driving in the desert for nearly two hours ----- it must have been close to noon ---- the heat nearly hid us in; the radiator boiled over and we had to use most of our drinking water to cool it down. By the time we reached the mountain, it was four o'clock and we were exhausted. Here, judgement ran out of us and we started the tough climb to the summit, not realizing that darkness came suddenly in the desert. Sure enough, by six we were struggling and Andrew very nearly went down a steep cliff, dragging Mohammed and me along with him. By nine, when the wind howled across the flat ledge of the summit, we knew as we shivered together for warmth that it had not been our lucky day.本段从"rose"(起床)写起,然后是吃早餐("not to miss breakfast", "closing at nine o'clock"),然后是"close to noon",一向写到这一天完毕("By nine--")。B.按方位远近摆放(spatial arrangement)例如:From a distance, it looked like a skinny tube, but as we got closer, we could see it flesh out before our eyes. It was tubular, all right, but fatter than we could see from far away. Furthermore, we were also astonished to notice that the building was really in two parts: a pagoda sitting on top of a tubular one-story structure. Standing ten feet away, we could marvel at how much of the pagoda was made up of glass windows. Almost everything under the wonderful Chinese roof was made of glass, unlike the tube that it was sitting on, which only had four. Inside, the tube was gloomy, because of the lack of light. Then a steep, narrow staircase took us up inside the pagoda and the light changed dramatically. All those windows let in a flood of sunshine and we could see out for miles across the flat land.本段的写法是由远及近,从远处("from a distance")写起,然后"get closer",再到(" ten feet away"),最后是"inside the pagoda"……当然,按方位远近来写不等于都是由远及近。根据需要,也能够由近及远,由外至内等等。C.按逻辑关系摆放(logical arrangement)a.按重要性顺序摆放(arrangement insgroupsof importance)If you work as a soda jerker, you will, of course, not need much skill in expressing yourself to be effective. If you work on a machine, your ability to express yourself will be of little importance. But as soon as you move one step up from the bottom, your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word. And the further away your job is from manual work, the larger the organization of which you are an employee, the more important it will be that you know how to convey your thoughts in writing or speaking. In the very large business organization, whether it is the government, the large corporation, or the Army, this ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a man can possess.这一段谈的是表达能力,它的重要性与工作,身份有关,从"not need much skill"或"of little importance"到"more important",最后是"most important"。b.由一般到特别摆放(general-to-specific arrangement)If a reader is lost, it is generally because the writer has not been careful enough to keep him on the path. This carelessness can take any number of forms. Perhaps a sentence is so excessively cluttered that the reader, hacking his way through the verbiage, simply doesn't know what it means. Perhaps a sentence has been so shoddily constructed that the reader could read it in any of several ways. Perhaps the writer has switched tenses, or has switched pronouns in mid-sentence, so the reader loses track of when the action took place or who is talking. Perhaps sentence B is not logical sequel to sentence A ---- the writer, in whose head the connection is clear, has not bothered to provide the missing link. Perhaps the writer has used an important word incorrectly by not taking the trouble to look it up. He may think that "sanguine" and "sanguinary" mean the same thing, but the difference is a bloody big one. The reader can only infer what the writer is trying to imply.这一段谈的是a writer's carelessness,先给出一个general statement作为主题句,然后经过5个"perhaps"加以比方。c.由特别到一般摆放(specific-to-general arrangement)I do not understand why people confuse my Siamese cat, Prissy, with the one I had several years ago, Henry. The two cats are only alike in breed. Prissy, a quiet, feminine feline, loves me dearly but not possessively. She likes to keep her distance from people, exert her independence and is never so rude as to beg, lick, or sniff unceremoniously. Her usual posture is sitting upright, eyes closed, perfectly still. Prissy is a very proper cat. Henry, on the other hand, loved me dearly but possessively. He was my shadow from morning till night. He expected me to constantly entertain him. Henry never cared who saw him do anything, whether it was decorous or not, and he usually offended my friends in some way. The cat made himself quite comfortable, on the top of the television, across stranger's feet or laps, in beds, drawers, sacks, closets, or nooks. The difference between them is imperceptible to strangers.本段的主题句是段首句,它仅提出一个问题:为什么两只猫会被搞混。然后对两者进行比较,末句才下结论。2、形连行文的逻辑性常常要靠恰当的变换词语及其他手法来完成。请读下面这一段文字并找出文中用以承上启下的词语:Walter's goal in life was to become a successful surgeon. First, though, he had to get through high school, so he concentrated all his efforts on his studies --- in particular, biology, chemistry, and math. Because he worked constantly on these subjects, Walter became proficient in them; however, Walter forgot that he needed to master other subjects besides those he had chosen. As a result, during his junior year of high school, Walter failed both English and Latin. Consequently, he had to repeat these subjects and he was almost unable to graduate on schedule. Finally, on June 6, Walter achieved the first step toward realizing his goal.本文中起承上启下的词语有两种,一种是变换词语(transitional words or phrases),另一种是起变换效果的其他衔接手法(linking devices)。前者依次有:first, though, so, in particular, and, because, however, besides, as a result, both…and, consequently, and, finally.后者依次是:he, he, his, his, he, these, them, he, those, his, he, these, his.本段1有词汇105个,所运用的变换词语及其他衔接用语共26个词,约占该段总词汇量的四分之一。由此可见,掌握好transitions不仅对行文的流通(smoothness)有利,并且关于学生在规则时刻内写足所要求的字数也是不无优点的。一个阶段里假如没有transitions也就很难有coherence了.咱们看下面一个比方:Speaking and writing are different in many ways. Speech depends on sounds. Writing uses written symbols. Speech developed about 500 000 years ago. Written language is a recent development. It was invented only about six thousand years ago. Speech is usually informal. The word choice of writing is often relatively formal. Pronunciation and accent often tell where the speaker is from. Pronunciation and accent are ignored in writing. A standard diction and spelling system prevails in the written language of most countries. Speech relies on gesture, loudness, and rise and fall of the voice. Writing lacks gesture, loudness and the rise and fall of the voice. Careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences.本段中除了第6句开头呈现一个起过渡效果的"it"之外,没有运用其他的过渡词语.这样,文中呈现许多重复的词语,全段读起来也显得僵硬而不自然。假如加上必要的过渡词语来润饰的话,这一段就成了下面一个流通连接的阶段:Speaking and writing are different in many ways. Speech depends on sounds; writing, on the other hand, uses written symbols. Speech was developed about 500 000 years ago, but written language is a recent development, invented only about six thousand years ago. Speech is usually informal, while the word choice of writing, by contrast, is often relatively formal. Although pronunciation and accent often tell where the speaker is from, they are ignored in wiring because a standard diction and spelling system prevails in most countries. Speech relies on gesture, loudness, and the rise and fall of the voice, but writing lacks these features. Careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences.有损连接性的几种状况:考生在写作中经常呈现下面几种错误:1)不必要的改动时态,比方:In the movie, Robert Redford was a spy. He goes to his office where he found everybody dead. Other spies wanted to kill him, so he takes refuge with Julie Christie. At her house, he had waited for the heat to die down, but they come after him anyway.2)不必要的改动单复数,比方:Everybody looks for satisfaction in his life. They want to be happy. But if he seeks only pleasure in the short run, the person will soon run out of pleasure and life will catch up to him. They need to pursue the deeper pleasure of satisfaction in work and in relationships.3)不必要的改动人称,比方:Now more than ever, parents need to be in touch with their children's activities because modern life has the tendency to cause cleavages in the family. You need to arrange family like it so that family members will do things together and know one another. You need to give up isolated pleasures of your own and realize that parents have a set of obligations to sponsor togetherness and therefore sponsor knowledge.因而写作中,必定要注意时态,人称以及数的改变是否正确,要注意保持一致。