Section A Directions:In this section。thereis a passage with ten blanks.You are required to select one word for each blankfrom a list ofchoices given in a word bankfollowing the passage.Read the passage through carefully before making your choices.Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter Please mark the corresponding letterfor each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.You may not use any ofthe words in the bank more than once. Questions 36 to 45 are based on thefollowingpassage. “THINKING is hard,”(36)__________Daniel Dennet,a professor of philosophy at Tufts University.“Thinking about some problems is so hard that it can make your head ache just thinking about thinking about them.”He has spent hA.f a century pondering some of the knottiest problems around:the nature of meaning,the(37)__________of minds and whether freewill is possible.His latest book,Intuition Pumps(直觉泵)and Other Tools for Thinking,is a precis of those 50 years,distilled into 77(38)__________ and mostly bite-sized chapters. “Intuiuon pumps”are what Mr Dennet calls thought experiments that aim to get at the rub of concepts.But the aim of this book is not(39)__________to show how the pumps work,but to(40)__________them to help readers think through some of the most profound conundrums. This pump which Mr Dennet calls a“cascade of homunculi(级联侏儒)”,was(41)__________by the field of artificial Intelligence,An programmer begins by taking a problem a computer is meant to solve and breaking it down into smaller tasks,to be dealt with by particular(42)__________.These,in turn,are(43)__________ of sub.subsystems,and so on.In this way,we are in depth of thinking profound problems. Of course,Mr Dennet’s book is not a(44)__________solution to such mind-benders;it is philosophy in action.Like all good philosophy,it works by getting the reader to examine deeply held but(45)__________ beliefs about some of our most fundamental concems,like personal autonomy.It is really not all easy read. A.consist B.actually C.nature D.concedes E.inspired F.definable G.composed H.readable I.substance J.merely K.unspoken L.apply M.suppose N.subsystem O.definitive 塔夫斯大学的一名哲学教授丹尼尔•丹尼特(36)承认:“思考是困难的,某些问题的思考之难,几乎到了只要一想这些问题就会头疼的地步。在过去半个世纪里,他一直在沉思那些最耐人寻味的问题:意义的本质,思想的(37)实质以及自由意志的可行性等。最近,他的力作《思考的工具:直觉泵及其他》新鲜出炉,由77篇既(38)有可读性又短小精悍的文章组成,是他五十多年来思考之浓缩,覃思之精华。 “直觉泵”是丹尼特用来称呼思想实验的术语。所谓思想实验就是一种意在探究概念内核的实验。本书的目的(39)不仅仅在于展示“直觉泵”的工作流程,更重要的是通过(40)运用“直觉泵”,帮助读者去揣摩那些最值得考虑的难题。 丹内特把这种泵称为“级联侏儒”,其(41)灵感来自于人工智能领域。当一名程序员接受了一项有待计算机解决的任务时,他首先会把这项任务分解为一些更小的任务,然后把这些任务交给一些特定的(42)子系统去解决,而这些子系统又是由更小的子子系统(43)组成的,以此类推。只有这样,这些问题才能得以深思。 当然,丹内特的书并不是这些令人迷惑的问题的(44)终极答案。相反的,是对此类问题的终极思考。如同所有终极思考一样,该书通过让读者对那些深藏于我们内心却又(45)无法言说的信念进行检讨,从而达到自己的目的。它确实不是一本易读懂的书。