Ⅰ动词(时态,语态,用法,省略,一致性等) 时态 1)现在完成进行时态 (have/has been + -ing 分词构成): 动作或状态从过去某时开始,继续到现在,可能继续下去,也可能刚刚结束. I’ve been writing letters for an hour. I’ve been sitting in the garden. 2)过去完成进行时(由had been + ing分词构成): 过去某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作 I’d been working for some time when he called. We had been waiting for her for two hours by the time she came. 3)将来完成进行时: 将来某个时刻以前一直在进行的动作. By next summer, he will have been working here for twenty years. In another month’s time she’ll have been studying here for three years. 4)将来完成时(由shall/will have + 过去分词构成): 将来某时已发生的事. I shall have finished this one before lunch. They’ll have hit the year’s target by the end of October. 语态 可以有两种被动结构的类型,例如: He was said to be jealous of her success. It was said that he was jealous of her success. 能同时适用于上述两个句型的主动词通常都是表示“估计”,“相信”等意义的动词,常见的有assume,believe,expect,fear,feel,know,presume,report,say,suppose,understand等. It is supposed that the ship has been sunk. The ship is supposed to have been sunk. 担当be supposed to 与不定式的一般形式搭配时往往表示不同的意义.例如: Why are you driving so fast in this area? You are supposed to know the speed to know the speed limit. (你应该晓得速度限制) 双宾语及宾补结构的被动语态 双宾语结构的被动语态: 双宾语结构变为被动语态时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一个宾语仍然保留在谓语后面,但多数是把间接宾语变为主语. He was asked a number of questions at the press conference. Two days were allowed them for making the necessary preparations. 宾补结构的被动语态: She was called Big Sister by everybody. Then he was made a squad leader. He was considered quite qualified for the job. The room was always kept clean and tidy. 短语动词 Vi + adv The plane took off two hours late. Vi + prep They looked round the Cathedral. Vi + prep (有被动语态) She’s looking after her sister’s children. The children were always well looked after. Vi + adv + prep I began to look forward to their visits. Vt + O + adv Some women choose to stay at home and bring up their children. The children were brought up by their mother. They took him on. Vt + adv + O (无被动语态) I am trying to give up smoking. Vt + O + prep We talked Donald into agreement.