【四级作文】 Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write A Brief Introduction to the University. You should write at least 120 words according to the following guidelines: 假设你是一名学生志愿者，要给来你们学校参观的外国朋友介绍学校情况。内容应包括学校历史、规模、教学现状以及未来目标等。 【参考范文】 A Brief Introduction to the University Distinguished guests, Welcome to our university. Before you start to look around, allow me to give you a brief account of the school. Founded in 1927, our university is one of this city’s earliest universities of liberal arts. It is staffed with an excellent faculty, and has a total enrollment of over 10,000 students. In the past years, it has turned out numerous well-qualified students and found its graduates active in professions of all walks of life. Since its establishment, the university has always steered itself toward the objective that its students have an overall healthy development. Not only does it provide the students with basic academic courses, but it manages to expose them to the up-to-date knowledge. Besides, students are free to participate in colorful campus activities and social practice, which are intended for broadening their mind and developing their potential talent. Currently, both our faculty and students are making every effort to improve the quality of our education in the direction of a first-rate university. Thank you. 点评：近几年，随着我国顺利加入世贸组织以及经济全球化步伐的加快，许多国内高校纷纷与国外大学合作办学，教育走向国际化成为人们关注的热点，也是大学生门比较关心的热点问题。本预测题为热议校园生活话题，与2004年旅游景点介绍2006年考查的名校校园开放如出一辙。 【四级阅读】 Baekeland and Hartmann report that the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. But at about age 15 or so, the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school, work, and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines. In general, these “short sleeps” appeared ambitious, active, energetic, cheerful, conformist(不动摇) in their opinions, and very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once, or workers full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear “normal” or “acceptable” to their friends and associates. When asked to recall their dreams, the “short sleepers” did poorly. More than this, they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion, their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed, and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away. The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic(疯人). The “long sleepers” were quite different indeed. Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleeps since childhood. They seemed to enjoy their sleep, protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the “short sleepers.” Many of the “long sleepers” were shy, anxious, introverted (内向), inhibited (压抑), passive, mildly depressed, and unsure of themselves (particularly in social situations). Several openly states that sleep was an escape from their daily problems. 1. According to the report,______. A) many short sleepers need less sleep by nature B) many short sleepers are obliged to reduce their nightly sleep time because they are busy with their work C) long sleepers sleep a longer period of time during the day D) many long sleepers preserve their sleeping habit formed during their childhood 2. Many “short sleepers” are likely to hold the view that _____. A) sleep is a withdrawal from the reality B) sleep interferes with their sound judgement C) sleep is the least expensive item on their routine program D) sleep is the best way to deal with psychological troubles 3. It is stated in the third paragraph that short sleepers _____. A) are ideally vigorous even under the pressures of life B) often neglect the consequences of inadequate sleep C) do not know how to relax properly D) are more unlikely to run into mental problems 4. When sometimes they cannot enjoy adequate sleep, the long sleepers might ____. A) appear disturbed B) become energetic C) feel dissatisfied D) be extremely depressed 5. Which of the following is Not included in the passage? A) If one sleeps inadequately, his performance suffers and his memory is weakened B) The sleep patterns of short sleepers are exactly the sane as those shown by many mental patients C) Long and short sleepers differ in their attitudes towards sleep D) Short sleepers would be better off with more rest 【答案及详解】 答案：DCBAB 贝克尔和哈特曼报道说，“睡眠少的人”在未进入少年期之前，其正常睡眠时间大致与所需要的时间差不多。但到了15岁左右，由于学校、工作或其它活动的地压力，他们就故意地减少了夜间睡眠的时间。这些人持有这样的观点：夜间睡眠是一件令人讨厌的事情，打断了日常事务。 总的说来，这些“睡眠少的人”表现得雄心勃勃、积极活跃、精力充沛、无意识乐观豁达、立场坚定，对自己职业的选择胸有成竹。他们往往同时从事几项工作，或者一边上学读书，一边从事专职或兼职工作。其中许多人有强烈愿望，想在朋友和熟人面前表现得“正常”或“合群”。 当让他们回忆梦境时，“睡眠少的人”回忆不起什么来。更有甚者，他们似乎情愿什么都记不住。类似的情况是他们通常处理心理问题的方式：不承认问题的存在，希望只要忙忙碌碌，麻烦总会过去的。 “睡眠少的人”的睡眠模式与被划入疯子之类精神病患者的睡眠模式十分相似，只不过没有那么严重而已。 “睡眠多的人”情形则大不相同。贝克尔和哈特曼报道说，这些年轻人从小的，有抱负的睡眠就一直很长。他们好像注重睡眠，不让睡眠受打搅。偶尔没有所需的9个小时夜间卧床休息，他们便会十分不安。他们比“睡眠少的人”要更能回忆得起梦的内容。许多“睡眠多的人”腼腆、焦躁、内向、压抑、消极和稍微有点儿沮丧，尤其在社交场合缺乏自信。好几个人坦言，睡眠是摆脱每天烦恼的一种方式。 Now let us look at how we read. When we read a printed text, our eyes move across a page in short, jerky movement. We recognize words usually when our eyes are still when they fixate. Each time they fixate, we see a group of words. This is known as the recognition span or the visual span. The length of time ofr which the eyes stop ---the duration of the fixation ----varies considerably from person to person. It also vaies within any one person according to his purpose in reading and his familiarity with the text. Furthermore, it can be affected by such factors as lighting and tiredness. Unfortunately, in the past, many reading improvement courses have concentrated too much on how our eyes move across the printed page. As a result of this misleading emphasis on the purely visual aspects of reading, numerous exercises have been devised to train the eyes to see more words at one fixation. For instance, in some exercises, words are flashed on to a screen for, say, a tenth or a twentieth of a second. One of the exercises has required students to fix their eyes on some central point, taking in the words on either side. Such word patterns are often constructed in the shape of rather steep pyramids so the reader takes in more and more words at each successive fixation. All these exercises are very clever, but it’s one thing to improve a person’s ability to see words and quite another thing to improve his ability to read a text efficiently. Reading requires the ability to understand the relationship between words. Consequently, for these reasons, many experts have now begun to question the usefulness of eye training, especially since any approach which trains a person to read isolated words and phrases would seem unlikely to help him in reading a continuous text. 1. The time of the recognition span can be affected by the following facts except ________ . A. one’s familiarity with the text B. one’s purpose in reading C. the length of a group of words D. lighting and tiredness 2. The author may believe that reading ______. A. requires a reader to take in more words at each fixation B. requires a reader to see words more quickly C. demands an deeply-participating mind D. demands more mind than eyes 3 What does the author mean by saying “but it’s one thing to improve a person’s ability to see words and quite another thing to improve his ability to read a text efficiently.” in the second parapraph? A. The ability to see words is not needed when an efficient reading is conducted. B. The reading exercises mentioned can’t help to improve both the ability to see and to comprehend words. C. The reading exercises mentioned can’t help to improve an efficient reading. D. The reading exercises mentioned has done a great job to improve one’s ability to see words. 4. Which of the following is NOT true? A. The visual span is a word or a group of words we see each time. B. Many experts began to question the efficiency of eye training. C. The emphasis on the purely visual aspects is misleading. D.The eye training will help readers in reading a continuous text. 5. The tune of the author in writing this article is ________ A critical B neutral C prssimistic D optimistic 【答案及详解】 答案：CCCDA 解题思路 1 C。事实细节题。第一段提到了影响视幅的因素：不同的人，不同的阅读目的，对材料的熟悉程度，光线，疲劳。C“一组词的长度”不是能影响视幅的因素，是本题的答案。 2 C。观点态度题。作者在第二段第二句提到，眼睛训练课程只注重了阅读的视觉因素。倒数第二句书哦，阅读要求具备理解单词间关系的能力。因此选项C“阅读需要大脑的深度参与”正确。作者没有否定阅读的视觉因素的必要性，但是也没有说读者应该练习拓宽视幅，加快阅读速度。所以AB两项都不正确。作者没有对大脑和眼睛在阅读过程中的重要性进行对比，所以不选D 3 C。 作者在这句话中先是肯定了那些阅读练习提高看单词的能力，然后提出了有效阅读概念。后面句中还指出，有效阅读需要的是理解单词间的联系的能力。所以作者的意思应该是那些(训练眼睛的)阅读练习对与有效的阅读无益。B与文章相反。D句是蕴涵其中一个意思，却不是作者想表达的方向。 4 D。 第二段最后一句说，眼睛训练对于帮助读者阅读连贯文章无益，所以D是错的，是本题答案。 5 A。 参考前面的结构剖析，作者写本文的主要目的是对那些只关注阅读的视觉因素的阅读能力课程进行批判，所以答案应该是A。 As is known to all, the organization and management of wages and salaries are very complex. Generally speaking, the Accounts Department is __1__ for calculations of pay, while the Personnel Department is interested in discussions with the employees about pay. If a firm wants to __2__ a new wage and salary structure, it is essential that the firm should decide on a __3__ of job evaluation and ways of measuring the performance of its employees. In order to be __4__, that new pay structure will need agreement between Trade Unions and employers. In job evaluation, all of the requirements of each job are defined in a detailed job description. Each of thsoe requirements is given a value, usually in "points", which are __5__ together to give a total value for the job. For middle and higher management, a special method is used to evaluate managers on their knowledge of the job, their responsibility, and their __6__ to solve problems. Because of the difficulty in measuring management work, however, job grades for managers are often decided without __7__ to an evaluation system based on points. In attempting to design a pay system, the Personnel Department should __8__ the value of each job with these in the job market. __9__, payment for a job should vary with any differences in the way that the job is performed. Where it is simple to measure the work done, as in the works done with hands, monetary encouragement schemes are often chosen, for __10__ workers, where measurement is difficult, methods of additional payments are employed. [A]compare [B]responsible [C]useful [D]added [E]find [F]reference [G]indirect [H]method [I]successful [J]combined [K]Necessarily [L]capacity [M]ability [N]Basically [O]adopt 【答案及详解】 1.选B)。此处应填形容词。原文意思为“会计部门...计算报酬”，选项中的形容词responsible“负责任的”，useful“有用的”，indirect“间接的”，successful“成功的”，其中indirect不能与for连用，排除;剩余几项中只有B)responsible意义符合原句，其他均不符合，故排除。 2.选O)。此处应填动词原形。本文主题就是采用一种新的工资和薪水制度时需要注意的问题，选项中的动词原形有compare“比较”，find“找到”，adopt“采纳”，分别带入原文，只有adopt最符合原文意思，故选O). 3.选H)。此处应填名词。从原文看，and连接并列结构，所以要填的词应与and后面的ways意思一致，选项中的名词只有mathod = ways，故选H)method。 4.选I)。此处应填形容词。上文说新的工资制度需要一套决定工作评估和衡量雇员表现的方法，说的是制度“是否有用”的问题。这句说的时新的工资制度执行过程中的问题，劳资双方先期达成一致是薪酬制度成功的必要条件。形容词useful和successful，I)seccessful更符合原文意思。 5.选D)。此处应填动词。这个动词的宾语是point“分值”，把分值...起来to give a total value "得出总分值"，选项中有added和combined，前者指“把...相加”，后者意为“把...结合在一起”，原文指将分值相加得出总分，故D)added最符合文意。 6.选M)。此处应填名词。首先solve problem“解决问题”是经理们应具备的能力，选项中的capacity与ability都可以表示“能力”;前者强调的是理解的能力和接受事物的能力，而后者强调实际应用的能力，故不难判断解决问题的能力应该用M)ability。 7.选F)。此处应填名词。前半句指出“因为管理工作很难评估，经理的工作得分不需要参照基于分值的评估系统决定。”without reference to为固定搭配，意思是“与...无关”。故选F)reference. 8.选A)。此处应填动词原形。原句中出现了the value of each job“每种工作的价值”和these in the job market“工作市场上的(工作价值)”，说明人事部门通过比较两种价值来计算工资制度。选项中只有compare表示“比较”，所以A)正确。 9.选K)。此处应填副词，修饰整句话。“报酬要随工作表现各方面的不同而有所改变”，选项中Necessarily“必须地”与Basically“基本地”为副词，分别带入原文，“报酬...的变化是必须的”更符合上下文意思，故排除N),选K)。 10.选G)。此处应填形容词。前文中提到一种情况即simple to measure the work done "易于评估的工作"，通常用现金奖励办法;而...measurement is difficult“难于评估的”，说明这些工作人员的工作不像手工工作那么直接，因而是间接的，故选项中只有G)indirect符合原句的意思。 Americans are proud of their variety and individualty, yet they love and respect few things more than a uniform. Why are uniforms so __1__ in the United States? Among the arguments for uniforms, one of the first is that in the eyes of most people they look more __2__ than civilian(百姓的) clothes. People have become conditioned to __3__ superior quality from a man who wears a uniform. The television repairman who wears a uniform tends to __4__ more trust than one who appears in civilian clothes. Faith in the __5__ of a garage mechanic is increased by a uniform. What an easier way is there for a nurse, a policeman, a barber, or a waiter to __6__ professional identity(身份) than to step out of uniform? Uniforms also have many __7__ benefits. They save on other clothes. They save on laundry bills. They are often more comfortable and more durable than civilian clothes.