《蓝海转移:超越竞争》(Blue Ocean Shift: Beyond Competing)是W·钱·金和勒妮·莫博涅两位教授全球最畅销书籍《蓝海战略》的续作。前者的核心概念是“蓝海”,也就是避开竞争并且创造新需求的新市场或创新。《蓝海转移》则把重点放在寻找这些未知领域的系统性流程上,以下为书中节选内容。“Blue Ocean Shift: Beyond Competing” is the follow-up to the global best seller “Blue Ocean Strategy” by professors W. Chan Kim and Reene Mauborgne. The books’ central concept is that of “blue oceans”—new markets or innovations devoid of competition that will create new demand. “Blue Ocean Shift” focuses on a systematic process for identifying those unchartered water. Below follows an excerpt.向大家展示如何向蓝海转移,也就是让自己的公司从市场竞争转向市场创造之前,我们首先需要澄清什么才是真正的市场创造战略以及它如何发挥作用。Before showing you how to make a blue ocean shift—how to move your organization from market competing to market creating—we first need to clarify what market- creating strategy really is and how it works.这些年来我们看到了许多模糊认知,原因是有些人难以理解有关市场创造的各种观点怎样才能契合在一起。有人把市场创造等同于创造性破坏或颠覆。他们认为,要创造新市场,就需要破坏或颠覆现有市场。有人认为市场创造属于创新,并且经常把科技视为解锁新市场的关键。还有人仍把市场创造视为创业的同义词,相信它属于创业范畴。We’ve seen a lot of confusion on this through the years, as some people have difficulty understanding how various perspectives on market creation fit together. Some equate market creation with creative destruction or disruption. They think you need to destroy or disrupt an existing market in order to create a new one. Others regard market creation as a matter of innovation, and often see technology as the key to unlocking new markets. Still others view market creation as synonymous with entrepreneurship and believe it to be the domain of entrepreneurs所有这些观点都有对的部分,但也有错的部分,因为每种观点都没有完整描绘市场创造的过程。没有全面了解,为蓝海转移付出的努力就会错失许多机会,甚至可能找错方向。所以,我们在此建立了市场创造战略的完整模型,以展示可供使用的战略方案以及它们怎样促成蓝海转移,还包括这些方案的相应增长成果。通过这个模型,我们就能明白这些局部观点怎样共同构成完整的图画。All these views are partly right. But they are also partly wrong, because each offers an incomplete picture of how markets are created. Without having a complete picture, efforts to make a blue ocean shift will miss many opportunities and may even be misdirected. So here we build a holistic model of market-creating strategy that shows not only the available strategic options and how they produce blue ocean shifts, but also their corresponding growth consequences. Using this model, we can understand how these existing partial views fit together in the big picture.创造性破坏和颠覆性创新只是问题的一部分Creative Destruction and Disruptive Innovation Are Only Part of the Picture与公司高管、创业者和政府部门负责人交流时,我们总会看到一种现象,那就是他们非常频繁地把市场创造和创造性破坏或颠覆的概念联系在一起。创造性破坏是奥地利经济学家约瑟夫·熊彼得塑造的经典词汇。他发现,尽管现有市场中存在竞争是好事,但随着买家的需求得到满足,回报率总会不断下降,竞争也会把利润空间挤压殆尽。,因此熊彼得认为创造新市场才是经济增长的真正动力。但在他看来,这样的创造要依靠破坏。In speaking with executives, entrepreneurs, and government leaders, one consistent pattern we’ve observed is how often they associate market creation with the concepts of creative destruction or disruption. Creative destruction is the iconic term coined by the Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter, who observed that although competition in existing markets is good, diminishing returns eventually set in as buyers’ needs are satisfied and profits are competed away. The real engine of economic growth, he argued, is therefore the creation of new markets. But, in his view, this creation is dependent on destruction.
创新取代较早的技术、现有产品或服务时就会造成破坏。在这里,取代这个词很重要,因为没有取代,就不会发生创造性破坏。举例来说,数字摄影方面的创新有效地取代了胶卷行业,从而对后者造成了创造性破坏。所以今天数字摄影成了常态,胶卷则鲜有人用。Destruction occurs when an innovation displaces an earlier technology or an existing product or service. The word displacement is important here because without displacement, creative destruction does not occur. For example, the innovation of digital photography creatively destroyed the photographic film industry by effectively displacing it. So today digital photography is the norm, and photographic film is seldom used.破坏这个概念和熊彼得领悟到的东西一致。The concept of disruption echoes Schumpeter’s insight.在对于破坏的研究中,和市场创造直接相关而且最知名的是很有影响力的颠覆性创新观点。发生颠覆性创新时,更好的技术、产品或服务将毁掉旧的技术、产品或服务。颠覆性创新始于次等技术的出现,随后它会跨越次等-优等界限,并在这个过程中夺取市场龙头位置。The most well-known study on disruption directly relevant to market creation is the influential idea of disruptive innovation. Whereas creative destruction occurs when a superior technology, product, or service comes along and destroys the old with the new, disruptive innovation begins with the arrival of an inferior technology, which then crosses the line from inferior to superior and, in doing so, displaces market leaders.这方面的经典案例莫过于领先磁盘驱动器厂商遭到颠覆并且最终被取代。它们被自下而上的颠覆者打了个措手不及,而后者最初进入人们的视野时拥有的技术较为简单,性能也较差。The classic example here is the disruption and eventual dis- placement of leading disk drive players, which were caught off guard by bottom-up disruptors that initially entered the scene with simpler technology and inferior performance.正如熊彼得所说,这种现象的一个显著特点就是进入一个行业的技术未必要先进,相反,它可以像特洛伊木马那样出现,其最初的落后面貌让它显得不会威胁到主流市场。因此,现有市场参与者会忽略这张新面孔,直到为时已晚。不过,这些观点的共同之处在于它们都把重点放在取代现有参与者和市场上。The distinguishing insight here is that the technology waltzing into an industry need not be superior, as Schumpeter suggests, but instead can come in as a Trojan horse whose initial inferiority does not appear to threaten the mainstream market. As a result, established players ignore the newcomer until it’s too late. What these ideas have in common, however, is their shared focus on the displacement of existing players and markets.商业史上有足够多的实例表明,这两种取代模式,或者说以创造性破坏或颠覆性创新为重点来讨论市场创造是片面和有误导性的。因此,为描述包含这两种取代方式的市场创造行为,我们使用了颠覆性创造这个词语。它更宽泛,而且捕捉到了以取代为动力的市场创造所蕴含的全部机会,而不是其中的一部分。As business history shows that there are ample cases of both forms of displacement, focusing singly on either creative destruction or disruptive innovation in discussions of market creation would be partial and misleading. Hence, to describe the act of market creation that embraces both forms of displacement, we coined the term disruptive creation. This broader term captures the full, not partial, opportunity space of market creation driven by displacement.不过,颠覆性创造仍会错失另一批市场创造机会,这和颠覆性创造的动力来自创造性破坏或颠覆性创新同样重要。我们的研究表明,许多新市场的创造并没有颠覆现有市场。Important as disruptive creation driven by either creative destruction or disruptive innovation is, however, it still misses another universe of market-creating opportunities. As our research shows, many new markets have also been created without disrupting existing ones.非颠覆性创造同样可以形成新市场并实现增长Nondisruptive Creation Also Generates New Markets and Growth如果你有孩子而且住在全世界147个国家中的某一个,无论是美国、阿富汗、德国还是也门,你都会对芝麻街有所耳闻。大鸟、艾摩、恩尼和伯特等诸多可爱布偶在这里教学龄前儿童数数、认识颜色、形状和英文字母。最棒的是,孩子们看这个节目时是那么快乐,以至于他们甚至都没有意识到自己是在学习。但父母们知道这一点,所以他们也喜欢这个节目。这和许多人对教育的看法截然相反。它在教育小孩子时吸引着他们,而且让他们很开心。If you have children and live in any one of 147 countries around the world, from the United States, to Afghanistan, to Germany, Japan, or Yemen, you have heard of Sesame Street. Big Bird, Elmo, Ernie, and Bert are just a few of the lovable Muppets that teach preschool children how to count, name their colors and shapes, and recognize the letters of the alphabet. And the best part is that children have so much fun watching the program they don’t even realize how much they’re learning. But parents do, which is why they love it too. It’s the antithesis of what many people associate with education. It seduces and amuses as it educates the very young.
芝麻街并没有颠覆它之前的任何早教市场。它没有毁掉或取代学前班、图书馆或者父母的睡前故事时间。相反,芝麻街打开了一条新的价值-成本边界,从而解锁了一个新的寓教于乐型早教市场,这个市场的绝大部分以前从未出现过。和“颠覆性创造”相反,芝麻街是我们所说的“非颠覆性创造”的结果,因为它开创了新的市场空间,而且并未颠覆现有市场。Sesame Street didn’t disrupt any prior market for early childhood education. It didn’t destroy and replace preschools, or libraries, or parents reading bedtime stories to their children. Rather, Sesame Street opened up a new value-cost frontier that unlocked the new market of preschool edutainment that, for the most part, had never existed before. In contrast to “disruptive creation,” Sesame Street is the result of what we call “nondisruptive creation,” as it created new market space without disrupting an existing market.