一、命题规律

  四级考试中,自1997年1月开始出现了简答题.评分标准是:在评分时同时考虑内容和语言,每题为2分.

  简短回答问题一般放在试卷二上,每次为一篇300字左右的短文.短文后附五个问题或不完整的句子,要求在阅读后用正确、简短的英文回答问题或完成句子.与阅读理解一样,简答题的题型也是多种多样的,但总的说来,可以分为:主旨大意题、逻辑推理题和事实细节题。在回答问题时,一定要根据题型及提问方式采取相应的对策. 

  二、答题技巧

  一般来说,做简答题可以遵循以下几个步骤(含注意事项):

  1)阅读要有的放矢.可先用1分钟左右来大致了解一下文章后面提出的问题及其所问的内容,做到阅读文章时心中有数,带着问题去阅读.这样就节约了时间,又提高了效率,同时还把握住了回答问题的准确度.

  2)然后,用5分钟左右来仔细阅读.不宜过急过快,以免欲速则不达.阅读时凭脑中对各问题的印象,随时捕捉与问题有关的信息词.同时可适当做些记号,以便做题时查找.

  3)原则上,读一遍原文即可回答问题.如果遇到有难度的问题,难以立刻找到答案,可有选择的再仔细阅读原文与该题有关的内容.切忌凭自己主观臆断来答题.

  4)答题是尽量使用自己的语言,不要过多照抄文中的语句.如原封不动照抄一句扣0.5分,照搬两句及以上扣2分,因此即便是肯定原文中的某句就是正确答案,也不能完整地抄下来,而应做些变动.

  5)答案要简洁、扼要,书写要工整清晰,争取以最简单易懂的词句来说明问题.要学会抓住关键词,问什么答什么,不要有任何多余的、拖泥带水的废话.

  例:1997年1月真题

  In Britain,the old Road Traffic Act restricted speeds to 2 m.p.h(miles per hour) in towns and 4 m.p.h. in the country.Later Parliament increased the speed limit to 14 m.p.h..But by 1903 the development of the car industry had made it necessary to raise the limit to 20 m.p.h..By 1903,however,the law was so widely ignored that speeding restrictions were done away with altogether.For five years motorists were free to drive at whatever speeds they liked.Then in 1935 the Road Traffic Act imposed a 30 m.p.h. speed limit in built-up areas,along with the introduction of driving tests and pedestrian crossing.

  Speeding is now the most common motoring offence in Britain,offences for speeding fall into three classes:exceeding the limit on a restricted road,exceeding on any road the limit for the vehicle you are driving,and exceeding the 70 m.p.h. limit on any road. A restricted road is one where the street lamps are 200 yards apart,or more.

  The main controversy surrounding speeding laws is the extent of their safety value.The Ministry of Transport maintains that speed limits reduce accidents.It claims that when the 30 mp.p.h. limit was introduced in 1935 there was a fall of 15 percent in fatal accidents.Likewise,when the 40 m.p.h. speed limit was imposed on a number of roads in London in the late fifties,there was a 28 percent reduction in serious accidents.There were also fewer casualties in the year after the 70 m.p.h. motorway limit was imposed in 1966.

  In America,however,it is though that the reduced accident figures are due rather to the increase in traffic density.This is why it has even been suggested that the present speed limits should be done away with completely,or that a guide should be given to inexperienced drivers and the speed limits made advisory,as is done in parts of the USA.

  【分析】这篇文章属于没有明显主题句的类型.针对这类文章出的题目主要是细节题.因为它不涉及作者个人的观点、看法,也推不出什么显而易见的结论.只是就事论事,不带主观偏见的陈述一些事实.遇到这类文章时一定要读得细些,以加快做题中回扫定位的速度和准确度.

  全文共分四段.首段回顾了英国历史上交通法规对行车速度的限制.第二段谈现状,说超速是目前英国最常见的交通违规行为.第三段讲围绕限制超速的一些争论,主要摆出了英国交通部的观点.第四段讲美国人对限制速度意义的不同认识.