【四级作文】 For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a composition on the topic: Living alone or Living with Roommates? You should write at least 120 words following the outline given below in Chinese. 1. 有人认为大学里应独自生活 2. 另一些认为大学里应与别人同住 3. 你的看法 Living alone or Living with Roommates Nowadays, there has appeared a heated discussion among the college students as to whether they should live alone outside the campus or live together with other roommates in the students’ dormitory. Opinions are divided over the matter. Those who are in favor of Living alone maintain that it is very convenient to live by themselves. They can enjoy absolute freedom in a room of their own. They can have their own timetable without disturbing others. They are also free to equip the room with a personal computer so that they can have easy access to the Internet. But others argue that living with roommates has attractions of its own. With several students sharing the same room, each person’s experiences can be greatly enriched. They can learn a lot from talking to one another. By learning to tolerate the differences between individuals, they can become more mature. As far as I’m concerned, I prefer to live with roommates because I love the feeling of belonging. Besides, it is a lot cheaper to live in a dorm than to rent a apartment outside the campus. 点评:本文与校园生活密切相关,也是近年来出现的现象,人们对此的看法各异,2003年后,四级作文考查加大了学校生活类题目的考查,因为这类题材不存在地域的差异,不同地域的同学都有话可说。本预测题即为校园生活类话题,与刚考完的四级作文话题类似,符合命题者出题思路,值得引起重视。 【四级阅读】 As the pace of life continues to increase, we are fast losing the art of relaxation. But relaxation is __1__ for a healthy mind and body. Stress is a natural part of everyday life and there is no way to __2__ it. In fact, it is not the bad thing as it is often supposed to be. A certain amount of stress is vital to provide motivation and give purpose to life. It is only when the stress gets out of __3__ that it can lead to poor performance and ill health. The amount of stress a person can withstand depends very much on the individual. Some peoplw are not afraid of stress, and such __4__ are obviously prime material for managerial responsibilities. Others lose heart at the first sight of __5__ difficulties. When exposed to stress, in whatever form, we react both physically and __6__. In fact we make choice between "flight or fight" and in more __7__ days the choices made the difference between life or death. The crises we meet today are unlikely to be so extreme, but however little the stress, it involves the same __8__. It is when such a reaction lasts long, through continued __9__ to stress, that health becomes endangered. Since we cannot __10__ stress from our lives it would be unwise to do so even if we could, we need to find ways to deal with it. A)exposure B)characters C)answer D)chemically E)avoid F)psychologically G)primitive H)transfer I)unusual J)control K)remove L)escape M)response N)backward O)essential 【答案】 1.选O)。此处应填形容词。前文中说人们正在失去放松的休闲方式,But转折表明作者对relaxation的重视态度,只有essential“必须的,重要的”符合文意。 2.选E)。此处应填动词。前句说Stress is a natural part of everyday life“压力是日常生活中很自然的一部分”,说明人们不能避免压力。选项中只有avoid的意思为“避免,消除”,故E)avoid正确。 3.选J)。此处应填名词。前面说有压力并不是坏事,适当的压力能给人以动力,能赋予人生活的意义。只有在什么时候,压力才会导致人们表现不佳,身体不好。根据上下文可知get out of control“压力失控”的时候,才会有不好的结果,故选J)control。 4.选B)。此处应填名词。前句中not afraid of stress“不怕压力”是一些人的性格特点,选项中可以表示人的性格特点的词只有characters,故选B)。 5.选I)。此处应填形容词,修饰名词difficulties。一些人遇到......的困难就灰心丧气,选项中的形容词中,unusual“不同寻常的”可以说明困难的程度,故选择I)。 6.选F)。此处应填副词,与physically相对应,在此physically作为“身体上的”解释。选项中的副词有chemically“化学地”和psychologically“精神地”,很明显两个副词中选择F)psychologically.就上考试大 7.选G)。此处应填形容词,修饰名词days。...days与后文中的today相对应,形成对比。选项中的是primitive,即将人类的早期和人类的今天做比较 ,故选G)。而N)backward说明的是社会发展的状态,不符合原文意思。 8.选M)。此处填名词。前句说,在人类的早期,选择不同就意味着生与死的差别;而现在人们碰到的危机不可能那样极端。后面but转折,说明了不管是压力的大小,人们都是在“避免”和“战斗”之间选择,下句中的such a reaction也可以说明人们对压力的反应是一样的,选项中的名词answer和response中,M)response=reaction符合文意。 9.选A)。根据上题,这种反应长时间持续的原因就是长时间的面对压力,选项中的exposure“暴露的状态,受影响”符合上下文意思,故选择A)exposure。 10.选K)。此处要填动词原形,和from构成动介搭配。人们应想办法应对压力,而不是将它......出人们的生活。选项中的transfer表示“转移”不符合原文意思;remove“移动,移除”可以和from连用,表示“除掉,移开”,符合原文意思,故选K)。 The typical pre-industrial family not only had a good many children, but numerous other dependents as well---grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousions. Such "extended" families were suited for survival in slow paced __1__ societies. But such families are hard to __2__. They are immobile.Industrialism demanded masses of workers ready and able to move off the land in pursuit of jobs, and to move again whenever necessary. Thus the extended family __3__ shed its excess weight and the so-called "nuclear" family emerged---a stripped-down, portable family unit __4__ only of parents and a small set of children. This new style family, far more __5__ than the traditional extended family, became the standard model in all the industrial counties. Super-industrialism, however, the next stage of eco-technological development, __6__ even higher mobility. Thus we may expect many among the people of the future to carry the streamlinling process, a stePfurther by remaining children, cutting the family down to its more __7__ components, aman and a woman. Two people, perhaps with matched careers, will prove more efficient at navigating through education and social status, through job changes and geographic relocations, than teh ordinarily child-cluttered family.A __8__ may be the postponement of children, rather than childlessness. Men and women today are often torn in __9__ between a commitment to career and a commitment to children. In the future, many __10__ will sidestePthis problem by deferring the entire task of raising children until after retirement.A)transplant B)solution C)gadually D)transportE)elemental F)conflict G)continually H)mobileI)couples J)agricultural )including L)compromiseM)requires N)primary O)consisting ANSWER: 1. 选J)。此处应填形容词,修饰名次societies。文章第一句就说The typical pre-industrial family...“工业化之前的典型家庭模式......”, 即“extended " family存在于工业化之前的社会,即agricultural society。故J)正确。选项中的primary”最初的,原始的“不符合原文意思。 2. 选A)。由be hard to do sth.可知,此处应填动词原形。They are immobile“这样的家庭很难流动”,这说明这样的家庭are hard to...,选项中由transplant和transport两个动词原形,前者指的是“迁居,迁移”,后者指的是运输,不难推断前者符合原文意思,故A)transplant正确。3. 选C)。因为这句话的句子结构完整,固此处应填副词。选项中的副词有gradually和continually,原文中...and the so-called "nuclear" family emerged.所谓的“核心家庭”便出现了“,emerge的意思是“浮现" ,强调经过一个过程后出现的。由此可以判断,这句话坏死说明核心家庭从无到有逐渐出现,而不是连续不断地出现,故选择C)gradually> 4. 选O)。该句可拆分理解,即a family unit... of parents and a smell set of children "一个家庭单元......父母和不多的孩子“,由此可以推出这里要填的词是表示”包含,由......组成“的。选项中的including和consisting均可以表示此意,但由原文中的of可排除including,consist of为固定刺诸,故O)为正确答案。 5. 选H)。从原文中的more...than可知,此处应填形容词,构成形容词的比较级结构。由第一段最后一句可知the traditional extended family是immobile,那么新型的家庭模式比旧的因该是更有流动性,故应选H)mobile,说明新型的家庭模式的优点。 6. 选M)。此处应填动词,作这句话的谓语。Super-industrialism“(更发达的)超级工业化”......更具流动性的家庭。可推知空格处应填表示“需要,需求”的词。requires表示出自一种迫切的需要而提出的要求,很明显选择M)requires。 7. 选E)。此处应填形容词,用来修饰名词components。文中说明家庭被减缩到最......的成员,即由男人和女人组成,男人和女人是一个家庭最基本的成员。选项中的E)elemental“基本的,本质的”,而N)primary“主要的,最早的”,原文强调的是男人和女人是一个家庭最basic的组成部分,故E)更符合原文意思。 8.选l)。此处应填名词。上段说两人家庭的优点,本句中提到rather than childlessness“而不是不要孩子”,说明晚要孩子是解决工作和孩子的折中的办法,故选项中的L)compromise“妥协,折中”符合文意。而solution虽然也表示解决办法,但不能表达夫妇们无可奈何的心情,故排除。 9.选F)。上题中已提到工作和要孩子之间存在矛盾即conflict,根据上下文意思,这个题相对容易。 10.选I)。这段一直在说一个家庭里男人和女人因为工作和要孩子的事情发生争吵,那么将来要解决这个问题的仍然是家庭中的夫妻两人,故这里应填I)couples。 导读:The typical pre-industrial family not only had a good many children, but numerous other dependents as well---grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousions. Such "extended" families were suited for survival in slow paced J)agricultural societies. But such families are hard to A)transplant. They are immobile.(The typical pre-industrial family="extended" family),第一段说明工业化前的大家庭模式的特点:很难流动。) Industrialism demanded masses of workers ready and able to move off the land in pursuit of jobs, and to move again whenever necessary. Thus the extended family C)gradually shed its excess weight and the so-called "nuclear" family emerged---a stripped-down, portable family unit O)consisting only of parents and a small set of children. This new style family, far more H)mobile than the traditional extended family, became the standard model in all the industrial counties. Super-industrialism, however, the next stage of eco-technological development, M)requires even higher mobility. Thus we may expect many among the people of the future to carry the streamlinling process, a stePfurther by remaining children, cutting the family down to its more E)elemental components, aman and a woman. Two people, perhaps with matched careers, will prove more efficient at navigating through education and social status, through job changes and geographic relocations, than teh ordinarily child-cluttered family.(第二段与第一段形成对比,说明industrialism“工业化”要求家庭必须流动,导致大家庭变得越来越小,甚至只剩下最基本的成员:男人和女人。) A D)transport may be the postponement of children, rather than childlessness. Men and women today are often torn in F)conflict between a commitment to career and a commitment to children. In the future, many I)couples will sidestePthis problem by deferring the entire task of raising children until after retirement. (最后一段说明工业化背景下,参加工作和要孩子之间存在矛盾。) 全文翻译:工业化之前的典型的家庭模式不仅包括许多孩子,而且还有很多其他的家庭成员----祖父母,叔叔,婶婶,堂兄妹等。这样的大家庭适合在慢节奏的农业社会中生存,但这样的家庭很难迁移和流动。工业化需要大量乐意并能够离开家乡外出寻找工作的工人,而且他们可以根据需要随时流动。这样,大家庭渐渐摆脱了多余的成员,而所谓的“核心家庭”便出现了:这种家庭是只包括父母和小孩的迁移方便的小家庭。这种远远比传统大家庭更易于流动的新型家庭模式便成为所有工业国家的标准模式。然而,超级工业化,即下一个阶段的生态科技的发展,要求家庭具有更大的流动性。因此我们期待:在将来,许多人采取继续进一步缩小的家庭模式。除了孩子,把家庭缩减到它的最基本成员,即只有一个男人和一个女人。夫妻两人,也许由于职业旗鼓相当,将比孩子成群的家庭在接受教育和处理社会问题方面更加爱得心应手,在更换工作类型和工作地点的方面更为有效。折中的解决办法就是推迟要孩子,而不是不要孩子。现在的男人和女人在忠于事业和抚养孩子之间总是引起冲突。在将来,许多夫妇会把全力以赴抚养孩子推迟到退休以后,以回避这一问题。 Videoconferencing is nothing more than a television set or PC monitor with a camera Through the videocenferencing, not only your voice but also your face, the surroundings and any other graphic and phisical __1__ can be captured and transmitted through the communication system with or without wires. Of course, when you go into the details, the technology involved is very __2__ and the subject matter littered with jargon. Such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) or the __3__ behind bandwidth, latency and isochrony which are used to explain how videoconferencing works.Good people communication is __4__ in any business, and the more interaction you can achieve, the more likely it is that your __5__ will be the right ones. Videoconferencing not only allows you to speak to people in different locations, but also note __6__ expressions and gestures that let you know what the other person is really thinking. Meetings are made more __7__ by sharing documents and computer applications that a simple telephone cannot __8__.__9__, organizations are discovering the competitive advantages and the power of videoconferencing. With advances in performance, economical pricing, the ability to __10__ essential meeting tools and connectivity to global telephone networks and standardized videoconferencing protocols, videoconferencing is now a practical reality for any organization. A) fortunately B) effective C) images D) articulate E) facial F) manage G) decisions H) connect I) advanced J) integrate K) progressive L) concepts M)pictures N) increasingly O) important 【答案】 1.选C)。空格中要填的是名词,从后面的......can be captured and transmitted可以选出选项中images和pictures,pictures指“画面,图片”,一般指静态的情景;而文中的意思表达的是实时的电视会议,画面应该是动态的,images可以表示动态的形象,画面,故C)images正确。 2.选I)。这里应填形容词,修饰the technology。选项中的advanced,progressive,important可以用来修饰the technology,注释1说明了the technology中包含了很多行业术语,是很深奥的,排除important;而progressive“上进的,进步的”,强调寻求更好的,advanced“领先的,有高深的,并非人人都能接受的含义”,根据上下文I)advanced更符合题意。 3.选L)。首先判断这里应填名词,再根据注释2种“用于解释视频会议工作原理的......”,原文中有explain“解释,说明”可以退出,选项中的名词中concepts最符合题意。故选L)。 4.选O)。此处应填形容词。这个分句后面说交流越多,你越可能成为正确的那一个,说明交流很重要,与本土的视频会议-----一种交流的工具主题一致,这里应该填important。 5.选G)。由空格后的ones可知,这里应填名词的复数形式。前面提到the more interaction..., the more likely...be the right ones“得到的交互信息越多,你的......就更有可能正确的”。人们通过电视会议谈判协商,了解得信息越多,自己的判断,决策才会更正确。故这里应填G)decisions。concepts“概念”是打扰项,这里和概念无关。 6.选E)。此处应填形容词。由上文Videoconferencing not only allows you to speak to people in different locations“视频会议不仅可以让你与不同地方的人说话”,...expressions and gestures that let you know what the other person is really thinking.“......表情和姿态,从而让你知道他们的真实想法”,很明显修饰expressions的应该是facial,意思是“面部表情”。 7.选B)。此处要填形容词,与more构成形容词比较级结构。从后文by sharing documents and computer application“通过共享文档和计算机应用,会议能更加......”,这里电话会议的优势,也是其目的,即提高效率,故这里应填B)effective。K)progressive“进步的”并不是电话会议要达到的目的,故排除。 8.选F)。此处应填动词原形。选项中的动词原形有articulate,manage,integrate,connect,由原文可知,电视会议可以“共享文档和应用计算机”,而电话是不能做到的,以推断这里填的词表示“做到,实现”的词,故只有manage“设法,达成”符合文意。 9.选N)。可以推断此处应填副词,选项中有fortunately和increasingly两个副词,本文全文都在说随着技术的发达,电视电话会议越来越受欢迎,所以应该是increasingly而不是fortunately“幸运地”。 10.选J)。此处应填动词原型,宾语是各种重要的会议工具。选项中还有articulate,integrate和connect三个位动词原形。其中aiticulate作“接合”意思讲的时候指的是单独的事物由关节连接,connect“连接”表示将分离的东西连接在一起,而integrate强调的是各种事物结合,形成一个整体。integrate正确,故选J)。 Nowadays, is it possible to tell a person’s class just by looking at him? Physical details __1__ tell us about health, diet and type of work done. A hundred years ago the working class very often lookd unhealthy, small and were either too thin or too fat. The upper classes were often __2__, sporting types who were used to a good diet and looked healthy. Today living and working conditions have improved, and such __3__ would no longer be so true.The clothes people choose to wear, however, do provide information about their __4__. The most obvious way in which is for the amount of money spent on them. Expensive clothes look expensive and show their wearer had money. Clothes can provide other __5__ as well. The upper classes __6__ to be less interested in fashion and wear good quality clothes in non-bright colours, made of natural material like wool, leather or cotton. Lower working class people often choose clothes in bright colours, made of man-made material. A sociological explanation for this would be that color and interest are mssing from their lives, and therefore any opportunity to introduce this is __7__.Clothes are __8__ at a price within most people’s reach. New clothes make the wearer feel good, and show some __9__ of wealth to the outside world. Today some new fashions are started by the lower working class people who want to look __10__ and feel important. They want people to look at them.来源 A) available B) background C) different D) tall E) totally F) taken G) descriptions H) degree I) clues J) alone K) appear L) consider M) full N) hobby O)fetched 【答案】 1.选J)。此处应填副词。可选项有totally和alone,由前一句中just可推出,外表上的细节仅仅能告诉我们这个人的健康状况,平时的营养状况以及他所从事的工作而不能看出他所处的阶级,故排除totally而选alone“惟一”。 2.选D)。此处应填形容词。因此此句和前一句是在将以前的工人阶级和上层阶级的身体状况进行对比,故此处应填与small“矮的”意思相反的词,选项中只有tall符合题意。而full“丰满的”不能用来修饰sporting types,故排除。 3.选G)。此处应填名词。现在的生活和工作条件改善了,情况已经不同了。而such指代的是上文中对一百年以前工人阶级和上层阶级的身体状况的身体状况的描述,故descriptions“描述”符合题意。 4.选B)。此处应填名词。根据句意“衣服可以提供...方面的信息”,选项中有background和hobby,选background“人的背景,社会阶层”,符合文章主题。 5.选I)。由as well可知,此处应填名词且与本段首句中的informaiton的意思相近,选项中只有clues“线索”符合题意。 6.选K)。此处应填动词的原形。选项中有appear和consider,appear可直接接不定式;而consider带不定式的复合结构,用于主动语态时,consider后面得接宾语,故选appear。 7选F)。这句中this指代bright colour,句子主干是any opportunity is...。可选项有taken和fetched,take“抓住”则可以与opportunity搭配,但fetch“拿来”不能与opportunity构成动宾搭配,故排除fetched而选taken。 8.选A)。此处应填形容词。句子意思是“衣服的价钱......,大多数人都买得起。”选项中只有available“可以接受的”符合题意。 9.选H)。此处应填名词。由a price within most people’s reach可推出,此处新衣服向外界显示的是穿衣者的富裕程度,故选择degree“程度”。 10.选C)。此处应填形容词。由new fashions和feel important可推出工人阶级想通过穿衣来改变他们,而选项中只有different“与众不同的”符合此意,故选择C)。