句子六大成分:主谓宾、定状表。 主语、宾语和表语:通常由代词或者名词构成;定语:修饰名词;状语:修饰形容词或者动词; 表语:接在系动词后面; (一).代词:人称代词、物主代词、反身代词、指示代词、不定代词。 1人称代词:第一、二、三人称,主格、宾格、所有格; I,you ,he,she, it, me, you, him, her, it, my, your, his, her, its. 2 物主代词 ①形容词性物主代词:my, your, his, her, our, their,后面加名词; ②名词性物主代词:mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs,后面不能加名词。 eg: May I borrow your pen? Mine is missing. 3反身代词:通过反身代词指代主语,使动作发出者把动作在形式上反射到发出者本人。强调人称问题。 eg:I myself took Mary to the airport. I cooked it myself. 4. 指示代词:this, that, these, those 5. 不定代词:some,someone,something,any,anyone,anything,no,no one,nothing,all,both,neither,either,each,every,everybody,everyone,everything. 一些比较重要的不定代词之间的区别: (1)all, each, every: ① all和every可以指代三个或三个以上的人或物;all可以表示所有东西的总和,是一个不可分割的整体; each只能表示两个或两个以上的人,侧重个体; ② all和every侧重整体,each侧重个体; eg:Every staff of the university contributed to the fund. Two girls came, and I gave an apple to each. (2)everyone&every one everyone等同于everybody,all people ,指的是所有的人; eg:Everyone thinks they have the right to be here. every one既可以指人,也可以指物,强调一个个体,通常用every one of ; eg:Every one of us has faults and shortcomings. Every one of the films we have shown this year has been a succes. (3)no one&none no one 只能指人,none既可以指人,也可以指物,none后面还可以接of; eg:No one failed the examination. None of the students failed the examination. 6. it 的用法 (1)指代人,通常用于口语中; (2)书面语: ① it 用来指代时间、距离、温度、天气等 eg:It's three years since I saw him. ② it 用来前指或者后指 eg:I've lost my book. Where is it? There is no doubt about it that he was a fine teacher. ③ it 做形式主语 eg:Is it possible to learn typewriting very quickly? ④ it 做形式宾语,通常放在谓语动词和宾语补足语(形容词)之间,真正的宾语放在宾补之后 常见动词有:feel, consider, find, believe, make, take, imagine, think, suppose, regard eg:She thinks it no use telling me. He has made it clear that he wouldn't agree to the plan. ⑤ it 用于强调句,构成句型It's…that/who… 如何区分强调句中的it和形式主语中的it? eg:It's clear that they have won. 如果It's和that去掉后,剩下的部分依然能构成完整的句子,就是强调句;否则,即为形式主语。 (二)名词 1. 可数名词 有单复数之分,若名词为单数,通常前面要加冠词a/an、the进行限定;若名词为复数,可以加上the,或者直接用复数名词,或者加上数词来进行限定。 名词的复数形式可以直接加s/es,以y 结尾的,变y 为i ,再加es,还有一些特殊形式的。 有些单数名词的形式,是集合名词,可以用作复数,如police,cattle,people,mankind等; eg:Several hundreds police were on duty at the demonstration yesterday. Cattle are allowed to graze on the village common. 不可数名词:通常是物质名词或者抽象名词 2. 不可数名词:通常是物质名词或者抽象名词,其前可以不加任何东西,若有特指,可以加the. 前面可以加上单位词,进行分类: 常见单位词: ①a piece of +advice/bread/cloth/fortune/information/music/muse ②a bit of、an item of、an article of 3. 名词在翻译中遇到的问题: (1)不可数名词和可数名词间的转换形式: eg:water&waters(水域、海洋),sand&sands(沙滩),wood&woods(树林),goods(商品),ash和ashes(废墟) (2)名词表示特指时,可以加冠词 ①不定冠词:a/an,通常表示一,但是不强调数目,翻译时注意; eg:Germany is a European country. ②定冠词:表示特定或特指 eg:Is this the book that you are looking for? 定冠词还可以使用于一些比较独特的语言现象:如指代地球或宇宙这种独一无二的事物 the+名词:表示全部或者整体 eg:Do you know who invented the computer? 用于乐器或专有名词前,如play the piano、the Thames