一、代词
代词中主要讲解六个问题
(一) 掌握代词的几种格
  主格、宾格、所有格
  名词前面用代词来修饰,只能用所有格(my books)

(二) 反身代词
当主语和宾语表示同一事物时,宾语使用反身代词。
  He killed himself. (他自杀了)
  He killed him. (他杀了他)

例:Researchers at the University of Colorado are investigating 
    A                 B   
  a series of indicators that could help
             C     
  themselves to predict earthquakes.
    D
分觯篋错,应改为them。如果用反身代词themselves,指代对象是从句主语that(即名词indicators),这显然是错误的。从句意来看,help的宾语应该是主句主语researchers,故应用代词宾格而不是反身代词。注意C并没有错,情态动词could 比can语气弱,表示较小的可能性。
Indicator为征兆,这些征兆帮助他们来预言地震。主语是征兆,后面指研究者,不是同一个事物

(三) 代词的单复数,代词的性别
在考试中如果代词打横线,代词错误的概率是非常高的,因此代词打横线,应该先看代词有没有错。

例:The continental divide refers to an imaginary line in the North American Rockies
  that divides the waters flowing into the Atlantic Ocean from it flowing into the
     A   B      C          D
  Pacific.

分析:D错,应改为those。D指代复数名词waters, it是单数,显然是错误的,根据习惯故改为those。注意waters一词并没有错,它指江湖河海中的大片水域,可用复数形式。

Water作为水是不可数名词,waters表示水域,通常使用复数形式,作主语谓语动词用复数。
Work作为工作是不可数名词,work作为作品,可数不可数都可以,例如:
  Many of his works= much of his work, work都表示作品

例:In 1920 the presidential candidate Warren Harding coined
                       A 
  the word “normalcy” to express social and
             B
   economic conditions they promised the nation.
   C       D
分析:D错,应改为he。动作promised是由Warren Harding发出来的,故用第三人称单数he来指代。

例:Many critics believe that Amy Lwell' s most important
        A    
  work is not poetry, but his biography, John
   B        C     
  Keats, published the year of her death. 
      D
分析:C错,应改为her。his指男性,显然是错误的,应改为her与后面的her同指Amy Lowell.


(四) Who和which的区别
which指代事物或者动物,who指代人
who/whom son往往要改为whose son, whose可以指代事物

例:The human body contains more than six hundred muscles who
              A            B
  account for approximately forty percent of the body weight.
   C                  D
分析:B错,应改为which或that。先行词不是指人,而是指物,关系代词不能用who,故改为which或that。
人体前面加定冠词the, account for 占有多大的比例,解释说明

(五) that和which的区别
介词后面使用which, 而不用that, in that除外

例:When television was first introduced, the extent to that it
              A        B
  would affect society could not have been foreseen.
      C              D
分析:B错,应改为which。The extent to which, 介词加which(引导定语从句),影响社会的程度没有被预见

(六) 定语从句的特殊省略
Reason后面有定语从句,中间往往省略why,
Time后面有定语从句,中间往往省略when
   I do remember the time I heard the sweetest voice in the wild world.
way后面有定语从句,中间省略了in which

例:Research on pain has been neglected, although the mainly
              A         B 
  reason people take medicine is to relieve pain.
         C      D
分析:B错,应改为main。mainly为副词,不能修饰后面的名词,故改为形容词main。句子中people take medicine修饰reason,定语从句引导词被省略

例:Commercial expansion from city to suburb has 
  affected the way people in the United States----.
   (A) living and working
   (B) they live and work
   (C) live and work
   (D) to live and to work
分析:选择C, the way people....影响了人们生活和工作的方式。