二、介词
介词是考试中出现的比较多的一个部分,而其中考的最多的就是介词的固定搭配问题。由于篇幅问题,我们在这里仅仅举出几个例题,在说明书手册中我们完整的列出了所有的介词搭配,这些列出的搭配在以前的语法题中出现过,只不过有的时候是正确的选项,有的时候重复考。
(一) 介词搭配

例:The teeth in the upper jaw function together those
    A         B   C     
  in the lower jaw to cut, tear, and grind food.
                D
分析:和…一起,应该为together with,C错

例:The Allegheny Mountain range is rich of coal.
A       B     C  D
分析:B错改为be rich in

例:The rotation of the Earth on its axis is responsible to the
    A         B      C
  alternation of periods of light and darkness.
             D
分析:C错,应改为responsible for。形容词responsible后接名词作宾语时要加介词for。


(二) 最重要的两个介词
1、介词of 多余或者遗漏
例:Mosquitoes usually lay eggs, singly or in batches, on top stagnant water.
          A      B  C     D
分析:D错,应改为top of stagnant。on top of …是因定表达法,意为“在…上面”。

例:Christopher Plummer is a Canadian actor who has
                 A  B    
  starred in stage, television, and film productions on
      C
  both sides the Atlantic Ocean.
      D
分析:D错,应改为sides of the。 sides为名词,the Atlantic Ocean也是名词,中间明显少了一个介词。

2、介词by
一种情况表示被动,be+过去分词+by
另一种表示通过……的方式, by doing
例:The ceremony of marriage in the United States
    A         B      
   can be performed from a justice of the peace. 治安法官
   C     D
分析:D错,应改为performed by。谓语动词是被动式,performed的动作执行者应该由介词by来引导。

例:Along the east coast ,American Indian women's councils
   A                     
   could veto a declaration of war at refusing to
     B    C       D
   supply moccasins and field rations.
分析:D错,应改为by refusing。通过拒绝提供鞋子和粮食,表示通过某种方式做某事要用介词by,故将at refusing 改为by refusing。

例:Algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with
        A               
  operations on sets of numbers or other elements
        B          C  
  that are often represented at symbols.
              D
分析:D错,应改为by。动作的发出者应该用介词by来引导。