3.逻辑错误。

  这种错误一般得根据上下文判断得出,分析这么多年六级改错的逻辑错误,答案无一例外都是将文中某个用错的词(很多情况下是一个形容词)改成它的反义词或添上一个否定词,这里要求同学们掌握一些常用的否定词缀,如in-、un-等等,因为有的形容词加上否定词缀就变成了它的反义词,举例如下:

  (1)the leaders of our country are unconsciously sending the message that reading may be connected to desirable activities that…(07年1月新六级改错第七题)desirable>undesirable

  (2)The task of learning facts and concepts, one at a time, makes learning laborious, boring and efficient. (07年1月老六级改错第八题)efficient> inefficient.本题中efficient和laborious与boring并列,根据并列成分意思一致原则,也可以推断出这里的efficient应该换成它的反义词.

  (3)But in the Information Age, no one can get by with knowing how to read well and understand increasingly complex material.(06年6月六级改错第十题)with>without.这里句子主语用了no one表示否定,而整个句子表示肯定的意思,所以后面必然要用一个否定词without 与no one构成双重否定表示肯定。

  (4)Initial impressions are vital, and a badly presented CV could mean acceptance, regardless of what’s in it.(06年1月六级改错第三题)acceptance>rejection

  (5)the person who is unfamiliar with the arts, music, literature, philosophy, or history.(04年6月六级改错第六题) unfamiliar>familiar

  (6)Except for relatively-isolated trouble spots like present-day Somalia, and occasional years of good harvests, the world’s food crisis has remained just around the corner.(04年1月六级改错第四题)good> poor/bad

  (7)Get someone to check for spelling and grammatic- al errors, because a spell-checker will pick up every mistake.(06年1月六级改错第6题)根据上下文,这里应该表示“不能挑出每个错误”,所以在pick up之前要加上否定词not.

  4.-ing型与-ed型改错题。

  此类题一般是动词后面少了ing或ed,这种题经常出现,值得注意。

  -ing型改错题分两种情况:(1)介词后面或某些动词后面跟着的动词需要使用该动词的-ing形式(2)用一个逗号将一个动词与其逻辑主语分开,该动词需要用-ing分词形式,举例如下:

  (1)The House proposal would have barred the federal government from demand library records….(07年1月新六级改错第三题)这里的demand应该改成demanding, bar/stop/prevent sth from doing为固定搭配,介词from后面的动词必须使用其-ing形式。

  (2)As a result, too many kids passed through school without mastering the printed page.(06年6月六级改错第1题)介词后面跟的动词通常都要加-ing形式,所以这里的master应该改成mastering.

  (3)Here are a few ways to avoid end up on the reject pile.(06年1月六级改错第4题)avoid后面跟动词要加-ing, 所以end改成ending.

  (4)This modern treatment will cure leprosy in 6 to 12 months, depend on the form of the disease.(05年1月六级改错第8题)一个逗号将depend on和其逻辑主语this modern treatment分开,因此depend要用其现在分词形式depending.

  (5)Culture refers to the social heritage of a people---- the learned patterns for thinking, feeling and acting that characterize a population or society, include the expression of these patterns in material things.(04年6月六级改错第一题)
和上一题一样,这里的include同样得用分词形式including.

-ed型改错:
(1)If you have to send one, make sure it is one taking in a professional setting…
(06年1月六级改错第九题)这里的one指代前文的photo,我们都知道照相用take a photo, 所以这里的one和take应该表示被动关系,所以应该用take的过去分词taken做后置定语。

(2)The rule here is to keep it factual and truthful----- exaggerations usually get find out.
(06年1月六级改错第10题)表示“被发现”显然要用过去分词found out.
注意:-ed型改错从本质上说就是要能发现动词与其逻辑主语的关系,动词是施动者,而其逻辑主语接收动词发出的动作.这和被动语态实际上是一个道理,下面举几个被动语态的题:

(1) The day the NEA report released….
(07年1月新六级改错第2题)这个报告被发表,所以在report和released之间要加上was.

(2) Studies indicate that many girls are affecting as well-----and not getting help.(06年6月六级改错第6题)
受到影响显然要用被动语态,所以affecting要改成过去式affected.值得注意的是,affect是改错命题专家比较偏爱的一个词,在05年1月的改错中考查了effect与affect的区别,大家对这个词要好好掌握。

(3)The members of the alliance against leprosy plan to target the countries which still threatened by leprosy.
(05年1月六级第10题)这里的the countries作为逻辑主语,与后面的动词threaten成被动关系,而且后面句子的形式threatened by leprosy也提示我们这里应该在threate- ned的前面加上系动词are.