第二天:认识词汇错误

一、 副词、形容词误用

1、 系动词和感官动词后要接形容词。系动词有:be, appear, seem, become, turn, go, come, grow, keep 等;感官动词 :feel, taste, smell, sound, look 等;另外 系动词中的became, turn, go, come, grow, keep 等也可以是 行为动词,请注意区别~ 试比较:Meat goes bad easily. / Go quickly or you’ll be late.

2、 大多数副词以-ly结尾,但以-ly结尾的并不都是副词。Like 形容词 意为“相似的,相像的”,likely 也同样是形容词 意为“可能的”;类似的情形:friendly(友好的), woolly(长绒毛的),costly(昂贵的),lonely(孤单的),elderly(过了中年的,稍老的),fatherly(如父亲的,慈爱的),motherly, brotherly, deadly(致命的,极度的)等。

3、 一些以 a-开头的形容词 只能做表语,而不做名词的前置修饰语,只能放在名词的后面;不能说 an asleep boy 而应是 a sleeping boy 或 an boy asleep ;这一类的形容词有:afraid, alike, alive, alone, asleep, awake, ashamed(惭愧的,羞耻的),afloat(飘浮的,传播的),akin(同族的,类似的),alight(点着的,发亮的)。

二、 介词误用

1、 介词的错误,只要 出现在 不及物动词后的介词;一些形容词后的介词;名词前后的介词 以及一些固定词组中的介词习惯搭配 被误用。比如:中文说 “一只鸟在树上”,而英文却是“There is a bird in the tree.”用的是 in 这个介词,而并非on;请大家做改错的时候,尽量从从所描述情景本身的形象含义,来考虑使用哪个介词;而不要全部从汉语的字面上理解 来选择介词。

三、 代词的误用

1、 弄清句子中某代词指代的对象,注意它前后的指称是否一致;

2、 对于关系代词,当现行词是指人的名词时,关系代词主格用 who 或that, 宾格用whom;现行词是指物的名词时,关系代词用 which 或 that, 单在非限制性定语从句中或介词后面的从句里 却只能用 which, 不能用that; 在同位语从句里 关系代词一般用 that, 而不用which。

3、 按正规语法,不定代词 someone, everyone, anyone, each 等都用 he, him, his, himself 第三人称单数代词与之相呼应,而不用 they, them, theirs, themselves 复数代词。

四、 连词误用

1、 连词分为从属连词和并列连词,它们的语法功能要搞清楚;尤其注意并列连词连接的前后部分在语法上必须对等、对称。尤其是并列的连词词组,如 either……or, neither……nor, as well as, in case 等。

2、 有些词既可以做 介词 又可做 连词 (如:since, for 等),但表达的意思不同;另一些词意思相同,如:despite(尽管)是介词,although (尽管)是连词,要注意区别二者的使用;还有一些词(如:during, neither, hence, however, like, then 等)很容易被误当作连词,要特别小心;事实上,它们是介词或是副词。

3、 最重要的是:先读懂句意,正确判断句子各部分的关系——是因果关系、条件关系还是并列关系,然后才能确定应用哪个连词。

五、 冠词误用

1、 注意物质名词、抽象名词在句中是否已普通名词化 或反之,这与该名词是否需要加冠词有密切的关系。例如: abandon ship 弃船而逃; a Smith 一个叫史密斯的人。

2、 仔细读懂句意,正确判断某个名词是特指还是泛指。

大家一起来做套题练习一下,做的不对没关系,只要经过自己的思考就是好的

When you start talking about good and bad manners you

immediately start meeting difficulties. Many people just cannot

agree what they mean. We asked a lady, who replied that she

thought you could tell a well-mannered person on the way they 71._______

occupied the space around them—for example, when such a

person walks down a street he or she is constantly unaware of 72._______

others. Such people never bump into other people.

However, a second person thought that this was more a

question of civilized behavior as good manners. Instead, this 73._______

other person told us a story, it he said was quite well known, 74._______

about an American who had been invited to an Arab meal at 75._______

one of the countries of the Middle East. The American hasn't 76._______

been told very much about the kind of food he might expect.If

he had known about American food, he might have behaved 77._______

better.

Immediately before him was a very flat piece of bread that

looked, to him, very much as a napkin (餐巾) Picking it 78._______

up, he put it into his collar, so that it falls across his shirt. 79._______

His Arab host, who had been watching, said of nothing, but 80._______

immediately copied the action of his guest.

And that, said this second person, was a fine example of

good manners.